项目概况:
建筑设计: People's Architecture Office
地点: Changchun Jie, Beijing,China
Principal: He Zhe, James Shen, Zang Feng
Project Team: Chen Yihuai, Zhang Zhen
Client: Mrs. Fan
Roof System: Beijing Jianzhong New Material and Technology Co.
完工时间: 2016
照片版权: Gao Tianxia / People’s Architecture Office 

项目简介:
新婚的小樊来自一个普通的北京家庭,像她这样三十出头要靠自己的实力在北京城里买房置业基本上只能是个梦想。

小樊在西城区的长椿街胡同院里长大。上高中时,家里因无法忍受胡同过时的生活条件,和大杂院日益拥挤破败的环境,在郊区购买了一套楼房。但她自己住不惯楼房,仍然留恋着饱含人情味的胡同生活。

 小樊采用“插件家”系统来改造家里的这间老平房,让她重回儿时成长的环境。相比较于买楼房,改造费用节省了30倍,居住条件远超楼房,日常能耗也大大降低,上下班通勤时间也从之前的4小时缩短为1小时。原来胡同里没有卫生间排污系统,只能使用公共厕所,但现在插件家却因为采用了进口的无水堆肥马桶,能够配备厨房与卫生间。

 这间“插件家”是为患有幽闭恐惧症的小樊量身定做的:客厅比原来的平房高近一倍,顶部双侧都开了高窗,阳光能够铺洒在室内的每个角落。卫生间屋顶隐藏的蓝色顶面,让这个小空间在雾霾天里也能反射出湛蓝的天光。屋顶平台让小樊在拥挤的胡同环境中拥有一片能够呼吸的小天地。

“插件家”发展自众建筑的“内盒院”。预制的“插件板”系统具有很好的防水性能,可用在室外;建造无需其他结构,板材自身即为结构。插件预制模块板集结构、防潮、保温、设备、室内外饰面于一体,整体厚度只有50mm。板材之间用锁钩连接,几个非专业人员用简单的工具即可在一天内完成搭建。

 小樊家的建筑形式和复杂的邻里关系有着直接的联系:新建房屋不能影响任何方向邻居的采光、视线与通风,所以出现了不同方向的退台和斜切面。甚至在搭建过程中,邻居新的修改意见也会随时出现,但插件板可以很轻松的现场切割,这一特性使得调整都能轻易实现。

 “插件家”是交织的社会力量在诸多实际限制中催生出来的新城市景象。“插件家”用居民花得起的钱实际提升了居住质量,让像小樊这样的年轻一代原住民能够回归胡同生活,在老城中享受新生活。 



 Mrs. Fan is from a traditional Chinese family. Newlyweds like her are expected to purchase a car and move into a new house in the suburbs to start the next phase of their life. But for people in their early 30’s who wish to be financially independent, the astronomical price of real estate in Beijing makes buying a house on their own nearly impossible.
 
Mrs. Fan was born and raised in the Changchun Jie Hutong neighborhood in the center of historic Beijing. By the time she was in high school her family had moved to the suburbs while her old neighborhood, with outdated infrastructure and overcrowding, continued to descend into slum-like conditions. But Fan never got accustomed to suburban residential towers, preferring the intimacy of the close knit community she came from.
 
The affordability of the Plugin House, thirty times less than the cost of buying a typical apartment, made moving back to where Mrs. Fan grew up a practical reality. The living standard and energy efficiency of a Plugin equals or exceeds that of new apartment towers. And her daily commute to work is now reduced from four hours to one. The Plugin replaces part of the old house and adds new functions such as a kitchen and bathroom. The Changchun Jie neighborhood has no sewage system, so public toilets are usually the only option. But an off-the-grid composting toilet system integrated into the plugin makes Hutong life much more convenient.
 
The Plugin House is custom designed for Mrs. Fan. The living room ceiling extends upwards to provide a double height space with skylights on either side. Sunlight is channeled in from above to flood the previously dark interior with light. To relieve Mrs. Fan of her claustrophobia the small bathroom also has a skylight but receives reflected sunlight from a blue privacy screen. Even on gloomy days the bathroom is covered in a blue tint. A roof deck gives her breathing room from the dense surroundings and private social space.
 
PAO’s proprietary prefabricated Plugin Panels makes the Plugin House very affordable.Originally developed for the Courtyard House Plugin for “house in house” renovations, the new Plugin House System is waterproof and can be used outside of an existing structure. These prefabricated modules incorporate insulation, interior and exterior finish into one molded part. Plugin Panels attach to each other with an integrated lock making construction a task simple enough to be completed by a couple of unskilled people and one tool in one day. Wiring and plumbing are integrated into the molded composite panels.
 
The architectural form of the Plugin is defined not by limitations imposed from regulations but instead the negotiated demands from surrounding neighbors. On all sides of the Plugin the structure cannot block sun light, air circulation, and views of the people next door. Even as the structure was built, new demands came about. The Plugin Panel material makes accommodating these changes practical, chopping off entire sections of the building can be done on site.
 
As an expression of intersecting social forces the Plugin House is a new urban vernacular born from local conditions. For original residents like Mrs. Fan to move back to these historic parts of Beijing is rare. Through improving living standards for an affordable price within given social constraints the Plugin House attempts to breathe new life into old neighborhoods.
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