香港零碳天地竹亭(ZCB Bamboo Pavilion) - 香港中文大学建筑学院

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项目概况:
建筑设计:香港中文大学建筑学院(The Chinese University of Hong Kong School of Architecture)
地点: 香港九龙湾常悦路8号(8 Sheung Yuet Rd, Kowloon Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong)
Principal Investigator: Prof. Kristof CROLLA
照片版权: Michael LAW, Ramon VAN DER HEIJDEN, Kevin NG 
建造时间: 3.5 月
 
项目简介:
建造业议会的零碳天地竹亭于2015年夏季正式开幕。竹亭是一个达相等于四层楼高、覆盖350平方米、足以容纳二百个座位的大跨度弯曲主导网架结构。
 
整个网架结构以475枝大竹组成,竹在施工时屈曲,并以广东传统搭棚技术用金属线将竹扎紧。竹亭的外形由三角网格结构向下折叠而成,组成的三个空心柱固定于混凝土地基上,并盖上量身定做的亚加力纤维布料作遮挡风雨用途,射灯则从空心柱中擦亮整个竹亭。
 
竹亭在建造业议会、香港中文大学建筑学院及众多承建商同心协力下完成。其由Prof. Kristof Crolla带领的中大建筑学院研究队伍所设计。这个研究探讨如何将计算设计工具套用于现行实际施工模式从而减少其对建筑设计的限制。新颖的设计体现出竹棚建筑无限的可能性,也希望给青黄不接的搭棚业一个展现精湛技艺的新天地。
 
竹亭的设计最初源于一个由中大建筑学院举办,建筑学生参与的设计工作坊所提出的概念方案。后来由研究团队、结构工程师、竹顾问利用电脑结构模拟程式、建筑模型和大比例样板共同研发完成。
 
竹子是非常普及和环保的物料,在亚太地区,非洲和美洲更是长得快又茂盛。竹也是很好的可再生自然资源,除了生长过程可将二氧化碳转化为氧,也是强,轻,易于加工和运输的建筑材料。在香港,竹大多出现于戏棚,临时棚架,和民间节庆的庙宇中。世界上,它通常用作木材或钢的替代品,都没有利用竹的独特弯曲性和强度。相反,零碳天地竹亭则提出一种能够放大其结构潜能的设计。
 
竹亭的几何形状複杂,每枝竹竿有独特的形态、尺寸和结构性质,而且传统竹棚都是在没有图则下,利用专业直觉去建造,种种都令竹亭成为建筑师在设计控制上的大挑战。就此,团队研发了结合精确数字化设计系统和自然资源的方法,来应对这些未知数。
 
零碳天地竹亭未来将用作提倡绿色生活的展览、表演及活动的场地,它创新和可持续发展的建筑概念将影响公众和建筑设计界,以及广东传统搭棚工艺的未来发展。

视频原链接:https://v.qq.com/iframe/player ... o%3D0

凉亭:
建筑面积: 350 m2 (包括地基425m2 ) 
功能: 活动空间
容量: 200 人
最大跨度: 37m
高度: 12.3m (free height of arches:5.65m)
重量:6,800kg for bamboo & skin. (包括地基107,800kg)

竹子:
总数#: 475 根
总长度: 2956m
直径 ø: Base: 12-15cm, top: 8-12cm
长度 Pole length: ≈ 7.2m
Total weight: 6,350kg after complete drying of bamboo. (7,100kg in wet state)
Species: Phyllostachys edulis (moso bamboo, mao zhu, 毛竹)
使用年限: Average age is 4 years (between 3 and 5 year old bamboo is used)

连结:
材料: 电镀金属丝
# 交叉点: 1107
# 重叠: 365 (3 ties per overlap)
total # ties: 3321

构造:
总面积: 910m2
# of triangles: 1278
总重量: 450kg

混凝土基础:
#: 3 
直径: 5.4m
高度: 0.5m 
重量: 101 吨
 
项目其它信息:
Executive Director: Christopher TO
Publicity: Yan IP
Technical Services: Margaret KAM
Co-Investigator : Adam FINGRUT
Research Assistants: IP Tsz Man Vincent, LAU Kin Keung Jason
Authorised Person: Martin TAM
Structural Engineer: George CHUNG
Project Client: Zero Carbon Building of the Construction Industry Council
Main Contractor: W.M. Construction Ltd.
Bamboo Construction: Sun Hip Scaffolding Eng. Co., Ltd.
Structural Engineering: Dr. Goman HO & Dr. Alfred FONG
Bamboo Consultant: Vinc MATH

From the architect. The ZCB Bamboo Pavilion is a public event space built for the Construction Industry Council’s Zero Carbon Building (ZCB) in the summer of 2015 in Kowloon Bay, Hong Kong. It is a four-storey-high long-span bending-active bamboo gridshell structure with a footprint of approximately 350m2 and a seating capacity of 200 people.

It is built from 475 large bamboo poles that are bent onsite to shape the structure and that are hand-tied together with metal wire using techniques based on Cantonese bamboo scaffolding craftsmanship. The shape is a large diagrid shell structure that is folded down into three hollow columns. These columns rest on three circular concrete footings. A tailor-made white tensile fabric is stretched over the structure and is brightly lit from inside the three legs.

The project is the outcome of the concerted efforts of the Construction Industry Council (CIC), the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) and different contractors. It was designed by a research team led by Prof. Kristof Crolla at CUHK’s School of Architecture. The research investigates how computational design tools can be strategically inserted into existing construction methods to allow for a more engaging and innovative architectural outcome. The ZCB Bamboo Pavilion showcases this and illustrates how the endangered craftsmanship of Bamboo Scaffolding Construction in Hong Kong can be expanded through the introduction of digital form-finding and real-time physics simulation tools.

The project’s design is based on an architecture student design internship held at the CUHK School of Architecture. The design was developed further by the research team in collaboration with structural engineers and bamboo consultants, using digital physics simulation engines, physical model making, and large-scale prototyping to derive its final form.

Bamboo is a widely available, environmentally friendly material that grows abundantly and at remarkably high speeds in the Asia-Pacific region, Africa and the Americas. It is an excellent renewable natural resource which captures CO2 and converts it into oxygen. It is strong, light and easy to process and transport. In Hong Kong bamboo mostly appears in temporary theatres, scaffolding, or structures for religious festivals. Globally it is usually applied as a surrogate for wood or steel, rather than in ways that utilise the material’s unique bending properties and strength. In contrast, the ZCB Bamboo Pavilion presents an alternative architectural application that maximise these latent material properties.

The pavilion is geometrically complex, bamboo has widely varying geometric, dimensional, and performative properties, and the scaffolding industry does not use conventional architectural drawings for its intuitive constructions. Building the project therefore challenged the boundaries of the architect’s design control. In response, new methods were developed that merged precise digital design systems with inconsistent natural resources in order to deal with these unpredictabilities.

The ZCB Bamboo Pavilion promotes innovative and ecological architectural design to the broader public and design community. It will be used to host exhibitions, performances and events that advocate low carbon living, construction, and development. By promoting sustainable, light-weight building methods for large span architecture the project seeks ways for traditional Cantonese craftsmanship to evolve for the 21st century.

Pavilion:
Covered Area: 350 m2 (425m2 incl. footing area)
Function: Event Space
Capacity: 200 people
Largest span: 37m
Height: 12.3m (free height of arches:5.65m)
Weight: 6,800kg for bamboo & skin. (107,800kg incl. footing)

Bamboo:
Total #: 475 poles used
Total Length: 2956m
Pole : Base: 12-15cm, top: 8-12cm
Pole length: ≈ 7.2m
Total weight: 6,350kg after complete drying of bamboo. (7,100kg in wet state)
Species: Phyllostachys edulis (moso bamboo, mao zhu, 毛竹)
Age: Average age is 4 years (between 3 and 5 year old bamboo is used)

Ties:
Material: Galvanized metal wire
# intersection points: 1107
# overlaps: 365 (3 ties per overlap)
total # ties: 3321

Fabric:
Total area: 910m2
# of triangles: 1278
Total Weight: 450kg

Concrete footing:
#: 3
Diameter: 5.4m
Height: 0.5m
Weight: 101 tonnes





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