阿根廷21世纪大学21试验楼(Experimenta 21 Tower) - MORINI Arquitectos

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项目概况:
建筑设计: MORINI Arquitectos
地点:阿根廷,科尔多瓦(X5000IJJ,, Ituzaingó 484, Villa Nueva, Córdoba, Argentina)
Architects Authors: Lucio Morini, Sara Gramatica, Jorge Morini
Project Architect: Adrián Castagno
Project Coordinator Architec: Luciano Barrionu
 
项目简介:
21试验楼和一个新的露天剧场现已加入一系列陆陆续续建成的建筑群中。和一大片成熟的树林一起,它们为1999年西萨·佩里设计的大型围场提供了一个边界。同时,它们也是21世纪大学(Universidad Siglo 21)总体规划的一部分。
  
这个新建筑由一系列研讨空间和实验室组成。在这些空间里开展的教学活动将采用先进且非常规的技巧和技术。
 
因此,建筑作为容器,需在其外部和内部体现出这种非常规的、甚至有些颠覆性的特征。
 
同时为了在大学里成为焦点,不同于校园普遍水平化的结构,建筑采用了纵向的细长比例,在校园的整体轮廓上极为突出。
  
设计意图是想在一个混凝土棱柱体上随机地穿孔和开洞,使从外观上感受不出建筑的真实尺度。
 
这种多孔性表皮打造出了一个发光和透明的内部空间,里面的各种活动都可以从外部瞥见。
 
在黑暗天空的映衬下,这种效果在夜间通过不规则穿孔透出的光亮而被加强。
 
功能布置是相对简单的。竖向交通连接着一个大厅,其尺寸正好可以作为旁边研讨空间的扩展,并可适应未来的增长需求。
  
整个空间实际上是透明的,由两个垂直庭院组成 - 由电梯通道的金属结构留下的自由空间以及由金属格子支撑的玻璃地板将其变成了一个大光庭。通过这个光庭,研讨空间可以得到采光。同时,学生可以看到其中发生的各种活动。
 
该建筑在建造技术上的成功,是基于非常规地利用当地市场上可用的资源。
 
在技术经济问题上,由于建筑的细长性和不能在使用空间中放置中间支撑构件,导致最终采取了滑动混凝土技术。这项技术使得我们在14天连续浇筑混凝土的基础上,完成了这个高度41米的棱柱体结构立面。
  
从研讨空间可以看到的预制和预应力楼板被安装在固定到周边隔墙的连续金属支架上。
 
建筑物的其余部分,包括其内部店面都是通过卷曲型材的金属结构来解决的。它们在现场被螺栓连接组装。此种螺栓连接的方式有助于树立一种繁忙研讨间的常见形象。该建筑的设计特别考虑了能源效率问题。
 
从可持续性的角度来看,设计体现在以下几个层面上。第一个是尽量在最小的热增益或损耗的情况下获得最多的自然采光。直接通向户外的穿孔根据内部需求进行调节,并且由内部庭院提供的照明加以补充。
 
室内的温度也是通过自然的方式加以调节的。按照这种思路,考虑到场地的气候条件,将湿润的层状多孔表面放置在庭院混凝土墙内侧。其中外部空气提供潜热,或帮助冷却,并以受控的方式进入车间的窗户,再通过对面的墙以受控的方式排出。
 
所有的雨水都存储在屋顶的水箱中。从那里雨水通过庭院的混凝土墙流下,被收集,并且聚集在入口大厅屋顶上的透明水箱中,并以连续循环的方式再循环回上部水箱。
 
外部混凝土墙的保温层和内衬有助于增加整体的保温性能,帮助自然地调节室内温度。
  
虽然大楼配有空调,但我们的目的是尽量少使用它,除非在极端温度情况下。

The Experimenta 21 tower and a new open amphitheater now join a series of buildings that have been completed over time as well as a fully developed grove to provide a boundary for the large yard designed by César Pelli in 1999 as part of the Master Plan for Universidad Siglo 21.
  
This new building is made up of a set of workshops and laboratories where teaching utilizes advanced and clearly unconventional techniques and technologies.
   
Consequently, the building, as a container, also had to express both externally and internally this unconventional and somehow disruptive character.
   
At the same time, it had to manifest itself as the visual icon of the University adopting a vertical development of slender proportions as opposed to the horizontal development of the Campus, clearly marking its location in the City’s profile.
   
The designed image is that of a concrete prism perforated randomly as a porous body in which no scalar relationship can be perceived.
 
 
This porosity reveals a luminous and transparent interior in which the dynamics of all the building’s activities unfold.
   
This effect is magnified at night by the brightness of its irregular perforations cut out against the dark background of the sky.
   
The functional scheme is simple, elements of vertical circulation provide access to a hall whose dimensions allow it to function as an expansion of the workshops it serves and that can potentially accommodate future growth.
   
This space is practically transparent and composed of two vertical courtyards—the free space left by the metallic structure of the elevator passage and the glass floors supported by a metallic lattice that transform it virtually into a great courtyard of light through which workshops are Illuminated and that allow, at the same time, students to view the diversity of activities carried out there.
   
The technical resolution of the building was conceived based on the unconventional use of resources available in the local market.
   
The technical-economic problems posed by its slenderness and the need to not place intermediate supports in the utilized spaces, led to approach the buildingthrough the sliding concrete technique that allowed the execution of a structural façade with the form of a prism container 41 meters in height in only 14 days of continuous pouring of concrete.
   
The prefabricated and prestressed slabs that areviewedfrom the workshopswere mounted on continuous metal brackets fixed to the perimeter partitions.
   
The rest of the building, including its interior storefrontwas resolved through a metallic structure of rolled profiles assembled on site by means of bolted joints that help to reaffirm an image close to that of an active workshop.
The building has been designed with special regard to its energy efficiency.
   
From the point of view of its sustainability, the design has operated at several levels. The first is to have the greatest natural lighting with the least thermal gain or loss. The perforations that lead directly outdoors are regulated according to the interior needs and are complemented by the full illumination through inner courtyards with temperatures controlled by natural means. In this sense, and considering the climatic conditions of the site, a porous surface wetted laminarly was placed on the inner side of the concrete walls of the courtyards, where the outside air provides latent heat, cools down, and enters in a controlled way through the windows of the workshops exiting through the opposite wall by an also regulated evacuation plenum.
   
All rainwater is stored in a cistern on the roof from where it descends through the concrete walls of the courtyards, is collected, and accumulates in a transparent tank that serves as the entrance hall roofand is recirculated back to the upper reservoir in a continuous cycle.
   
The exterior concrete walls complement its great thermal inertia with its insulation and inner lining helping to naturally regulate the periods of average temperatures.
   
Although the building is equipped with air conditioning, the goal is for its use to be minimal and only in extreme temperature situations.
   
Si bien el edificio consta con equipos de aire acondicionado, el objetivo es que su uso sea mínimo y sólo en situaciones de picos extremos.
 






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