澳大利亚热带雨林里“帐篷”住宅(Tent House) - Sparks Architects

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项目概况:
建筑设计: Sparks Architects Pty Ltd
地点: 澳大利亚(2/78 Memorial Dr, Eumundi QLD 4562, Australia)
主持建筑师: Dan Sparks, Michael Cornish, Rabea Stader, Patrick Ozmin
建筑面积: 344.0 m2
完工时间: 2016
照片版权: Christopher Frederic
 
项目简介:
这片林间空地位于努萨内地的一个热带雨林中,临近着一个典型的乡村住宅区。通向林间空地的旅程始于一条正常的街道,然后便拐进一条曲曲折折的灌木小径中。这条蜿蜒的小路可以看做是钢筋水泥世界与世外桃源的分界线。除了一个早期遗留下来的营地,那里基本没有人工的痕迹。
 
营地北侧被郁郁葱葱的热带树木所包围,那些树木都有40米那么高。而沿着场地边界的一条小溪则为当地动植物群提供了一条河岸走廊。由于空地空间有限,房子需要利用森林“墙壁”的全部高度,并向上方天空延伸,否则就可能带给人压抑感。四周森林的规模和密度也影响了冬季的阳光渗透,最终在这片空地上创造了一个微气候。
 
任务书要求房间内要包括三间卧室,并且要有一个中央开放式的起居和厨房空间。为了应对这些要求和场地本身的独特性,起居空间被放置在了东边,和、而西边的走廊串联起卧室,学习角,日光浴床和储藏空间。房子沿东西向等高线建设,使所有房间都可以享受到北面雨林的景色,并最大化冬季太阳能获得量。
 
建筑采用了双重策略。在冷天,人们主要在可活动的保温箱体内活动;而天气暖和的时候,可以到像帐篷一样的户外空间活动。箱体结构的墙和门可以手动地滑动打开,而屋顶或天窗则可以自动开启。随着屋顶完全打开,半透明的帐篷膜便进入视野,使人对体量,光线和材料都有了新的体验。当门滑动打开时,森林墙便成为了一个建筑元素;它像是一片天然的墙,包含了平面上更广阔的空间,一直延伸到剩余的空地和花园里。
 
帐篷屋顶作为一个“飞屋顶”处在隔热屋顶的上方,并承受主要的热负荷。两个屋顶元素之间的空隙实现了简单的草垛通风系统。帐篷屋顶不同的高度确保了最大化的冬季阳光渗透,同时使东、西和南立面在夏季减少阳光辐射。
 
箱体内部的地板采用了暗色,与白色帐篷和支撑结构形成了对比。但实际上,两者之间更强烈的对比关系是通过对箱体造型的微妙设计来实现的 - 比如,在建筑外墙和橱柜转角处倒圆角,并暴露了圆形空心截面钢柱。
 
两个主要的建筑需求,居住和安全,都在这个项目中得到了证实和检验。双重居住模式在这里得到了体现- 一种模式是相对封闭的,另一种更加开放的模式鼓励居住者与自然环境之间建立更直接的关系。最终,建筑物为住户提供了灵活的室内外空间使用的可能性,使得用户可以根据喜好自行决定选择哪一种方式。
 
这种看起来很小但却很多元化的建筑,实际上能给业主带来简单舒适的栖居方式。同时还可以最大化他们与特殊场地之间的互动。
 

From the architect. This forest clearing addressing a pocket of rainforest in the Noosa hinterland, is approached through a typical neighbourhood of rural houses and acreage dwellings. The journey to the house continues from the street via a winding bush track through the forest which acts as a threshold between the constructed world and that of the clearing, a place remnant of early settlement in the region; a camp.
   
Flanking the northern side of the camp is a lush tropical wall of trees, 40m tall. A small creek along this boundary also provides a riparian corridor for local flora and fauna. Due to the limited size of the clearing the house needed to address the full height of the forest ‘wall’ and look to capture the sky above, or risk a feeling of confinement. The scale and density of the surrounding forest also reduces winter sun penetration and ultimately creates its own micro-climate.
   
The brief called for a 3 bedroom family dwelling with a central open plan living and kitchen space. Responding to this and the unique site, the living space feeds to east and west corridors providing bedroom access, and nooks for study, day bed and storage. The pavilion running along the east-west contour allows all rooms to enjoy the rainforest view to the north maximizing winter solar gain.
   
The architectural response is a duel concept pairing an operable insulated box for cooler months that allows habitation to a tent-like amenity in warmer months. The walls, or doors, of the box slide open manually, while the roof, or lid, has an automated sliding operation. With the roof fully open the translucent tent membrane comes into view and a new volume, light, and material is experienced. As the doors slide open the forest wall becomes an architectural element; a natural wall that contains a broader space of the house plan, stretching it across the remaining clearing and garden.
   
The tent roof serves as a ‘fly roof’ above the insulated roof and takes the brunt of the heat load. The void between the two roof elements allows for a simple stack ventilation process. The varied pitches of the tent roof maximise winter sun penetration and protects the east, west and southern exposures.
   
The choice of dark grounding colours for the box forms a contrast against the white tent and supporting structure. A relationship between the two is nevertheless achieved through subtle shaping of the box – rounding the corners of the building and cabinetry, and expressed CHS columns.
   
Two primary architectural elements; shelter and security, are tested within this proposition. A dual mode of habitat is achieved - an enclosed and sheltered mode, and the other open and expansive allowing the occupants a direct relationship to their natural surroundings. The building ultimately provides a spatial opportunity that flexes between an interior and an exterior condition at the users’ discretion.
   
This deceptively small yet undeniably dynamic building allows for the owners to live simply and comfortably whilst maximizing their engagement with a very special site.
 





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