法国拉斯科洞窟4号壁画博物馆(Lascaux IV) - Snøhetta + Casson Mann

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项目概况:
建筑设计: Snøhetta, Casson Mann
地点: Avenue de Lascaux, 24290 Montignac, France Conseil général de la Dordogne, France
建筑面积: 8365.0 m2
完工时间: 2017
照片版权: Boegly + Grazia photographers, Courtesy of Casson Mann, Dan Courtic
 
项目简介:
位于法国 Montignac 的新国际洞穴艺术中心邀请大家来体验一种关于史前 Lascaux 洞窟壁画浸入式的教育。这里的史前 Sistine 教堂的考古价值在历史上和精神上有着重要的意义,教堂内甚至存有20000岁的高龄绘画艺术,最著名的可以追溯到旧石器时代。Snøhetta 和 SRA 事务所和 scenographer Casson Mann 事务所组成了一个团队旨在创造一个经典的博物馆和教育体验空间。作为一个演绎空间这里拥有最先进的体验式故事讲述技术,与之搭配的还有一个模拟的空穴,Lascaux IV 为参观者提供了一个用独一无二的发觉山洞的方式,揭示了奇迹和秘密。同样的这里的山洞壁画也是有一群冒险者偶然发现的。
 
新的 Lascaux IV 山洞博物馆坐落于两个景观的交叉口,在有密林的山坡和 Vézère 农业保护区的山谷之间。Snøhetta 的设计构想是把建筑恰巧作为景观中的一个切片,将参观者引入到对史前世界的好奇中来。用当代的设计手段复制山洞的体验,避免潜在的圈套——运用材料和几何方式让参观者理解他们正处在一个再生品之中,而不分散他的影响。博物馆的材料和形式有一个整体而冷静的表达,与自然和周围大量的嵌入在山体中的岩石产生对话,一个新的公众的,有农业特征的景观围绕着建筑周围展开。
 
参观者的体验有一个精心安排的序列。从大厅开始,参观者将沿着电梯上升,到达一个屋顶外的观景平台,在这里可以欣赏 Montignac 城市和 Vézère 山谷宏伟的全景。然后下降到一个通向复制的山洞的缓坡,坡道沿着屋顶的倾斜到达森林的边缘,再延伸直到到达山洞的入口。曲折的路径从通过景观和逐渐缓慢下降的坡道形成了一种时间和空间上的精神过渡,创造了与1940年山洞第一次被发现时的相似的体验。
 
洞穴的内部是潮湿昏暗的,复原了山洞内原本的湿度。声音是模糊的,温度降低到摄氏16度。进入时的序列使人们陷入沉思,感受到这里曾经作为避难所的体验。灯光闪烁就像旧石器时代的动物脂肪灯,展示着墙壁表面上的壁画和雕刻。
 
洞穴使用最闲的3D激光扫描和铸造技术,以一厘米以内的误差复原了洞穴的尺寸。整个复制过程十分谨慎:25名艺术家花费2年时间手工绘画900米长的壁画。为了确保绘画的质量,艺术家使用与2万年前的绘画家用的绘画材料,绘制了1900幅壁画。

走出洞穴,参观者来到一个过渡空间被称为洞穴花园。这个庭院是游客在室内紧张而富有感情的体验之后的过渡,可以在室外空间重新调整情绪。与天空,植物和水流的关系一同构成了这个瞬间。
  
在整个博物馆的游客体验序列中,有光线和强度营造的鲜明气氛差异形成了平衡——从安置在山上的封闭的展览空间到作为过渡空间的充满阳光的大厅。下降和上升、内部和外部、地面和天空、自然和艺术的并置,唤起了类似洞穴的体验。
 
在复合教育空间之间的定位区域由上方的日光裂缝照亮,创造了一个平静和沉思的区域,让游客在展览之间重整和休息,也是一个游客可以聚集的社交场所。
 
接下来的说明中心提供了一个交互展览,可以触摸风雨的关于 Vézère 山谷和洞穴壁画的历史。Casson Mann 事务所设计的装置通过数字体验的方式更加强化,利用新技术装置和交互屏幕可以从史前专家和考古学家那里发现最新的研究。
 
参观者可以通过为博物馆特殊设计的“参观伙伴”得到进一步的了解。交互数字伙伴装置将展览空间从小册子解放出来,这个装置混合了艺术、历史、文化和注释可以得到分层信息并且能够观看过去的虚拟图像。
 
说明中心的第一个展览空间是工作室(Lascaux L工作室),有八块悬挂的岩石碎片,参观者可以更近距离的观察壁画。这个空间还提供了了洞穴的历史信息,之前的发掘以及为什么真实的洞穴不对外开放以及2万年前的绘画家是如何工作的。
 
洞穴艺术剧场通过灯光、声音、电影和道具表演一部三幕剧,表现Lascaux洞穴中的故事。在电影院游客可以佩戴3D立体眼镜在数字飞船上观看一段3D电影。
 
在想象力美术馆中,游客能够探索史前洞穴艺术对于现代和当代艺术的影响。这里由 John Paul Jouary担任馆长,他是教授、哲学家和作家,致力于探索旧石器时代艺术与我们当代艺术之间的关系。
 
作为一个引人注目的对于Vezere山谷景观的置入品, Lascaux IV博物馆对史前艺术众所周知的案例构成了一种新的体验模式,也对丰富遗产以及周围环境产生一种意义深远的新的理解方式。这个项目是低技术和高技术的混合,从细致的手工复制到VR展览,吸引游客用一种当代的方式发掘祖先的艺术。身体、概念和空间编织在一起,整体的构思将旧石器时代的艺术和当代方式统一在空间和体验描述方式上。

From the architect. The new International Centre for Cave Art (Centre International d’Art Parietal) in Montignac, France welcomes visitors to an immersive educational experience of the prehistoric Lascaux cave paintings. Known by archaeologists as the ‘Sistine Chapel of Prehistory’ due to their spiritual and historical significance, the 20,000-year-old paintings are among the finest known examples of art from the Paleolithic period. Architects Snhetta and SRA, alongside scenographer Casson Mann, worked closely with a team of archaeologists to create a holistic museum and educational experience. As an interpretation center featuring state-of-the-art experiential storytelling technology paired with a facsimile of the caves, Lascaux IV offers visitors an opportunity to discover the caves in a unique way that reveals a sense of wonder and mystery, as if they, too, were the first group of adventurers to stumble upon the cave paintings.
  
The new Lascaux IV Caves Museum is situated at the intersection of two unique landscapes, between a densely-forested, protected hillside and the agricultural Vézère Valley. Snhetta’s design conceives the museum as a fine cut in the landscape, inviting visitors into a curious world of prehistory. By framing the experience of the cave replica in contemporary design, the approach counters the potential trap of artifice: the materiality and geometry of the approach allows the visitor to understand that they are in the presence of a reproduction, without distracting from the power of its impact. The form and materiality of the museum have a monolithic, sober expression, speaking to the surrounding nature and the massive rock formations embedded in the hill, with a new public, agricultural landscape unfolding around it. 
 
The visitor experience is carefully sequenced. Beginning in the lobby, visitors ascend by a lift to the belvedere out on the roof, where they can enjoy a magnificent panoramic view of Montignac and the Vézère Valley. They then descend a gentle slope towards the cave facsimile, which follows the incline of the roof towards the edge of the forest until reaching the entrance to the replica. The winding path through the landscape and gradual descent back down to grade facilitates a mental transition through time and space, creating an experience similar to that of the cave’s first discoverers in 1940.
 
Inside the cave facsimile, the atmosphere is damp and dark, re-creating the humidity within the caves. Sounds are muffled; the temperature drops to about 16 degrees Celsius. This sequence is dedicated to contemplation, allowing people an experience of the sanctuary that once was. Lights flicker just as the animal fat lamps of Paleolithic times did, revealing the layers of paintings and engravings on the surface of the walls. 
 
The cave replica was developed through the most advanced 3D laser scanning and casting technologies to replicate the original cave form to a 1 millimeter tolerance. Following the construction, the caves underwent a careful analog process: 25 artists spent 2 years hand-painting 900 meters of resin rock reproductions. To ensure the highest level of accuracy, artists used the same pigments that the prehistoric painters used 20,000 years ago to recreate the 1900 paintings and engravings that adorn the walls of Lascaux IV.
 
Upon exiting the facsimile, visitors arrive at a transition space known as the Cave Garden. This patio provides an opportunity to re-adjust to the exterior context after the intense visceral and emotional experience of the Cave replica. The relationship to the sky, the presence of plants and the sound of flowing water frame this moment.
 
 
Throughout the museum, the visitor experience sequences a balance of stark differences in atmospheres, light and intensities – from the enclosed exhibition spaces ensconced in the hill, to the light-filled lobby and transition spaces. The juxtaposition between descent and ascent, inside and outside, earth and sky, or nature and art, evoke the analogous experience of the caves.
 
 
The orientation zone between the multiple educational spaces is illuminated by a fissure of daylight from above, creating a calm and contemplative zone for visitors to re-set and rest between exhibitions, as well as a social meeting point where visitors can gather.
 
 
The interpretive center that follows provides interactive exhibitions to teach the rich history of the Vézère Valley and cave paintings. Casson Mann’s installations are enhanced by digital learning experiences, employing new technological devices and interactive screens to offer the findings of the most recent research from expert pre-historians and archaeologists.
 
 
Visitors can engage with a device known as the ‘Companion De Visite’ specially designed for the museum. The interactive digital companion device (CdV) liberates the gallery spaces from text panels – blending art, history, culture and contemplation by offering layers of additional information and views into the virtual reality of the past.
 
 
The first exhibition space in the interpretive center is The Workshop (L’Atelier de Lascaux), with 8 hanging rock wall fragments, where visitors can examine the paintings more closely. This space also provides information on the history of the caves, their discovery, why the real cave is now closed, and how the artists of 20,000 years ago worked.
 
 
The Cave Art Theatre (Le theatre de l’art paretial) presents a three-act play using light, sound, movies and objects to give life to the story of Lascaux’s cave art. In the Cinema, visitors wear 3D stereoscopic glasses for a 3D film on a digital voyage through the cave.
 
 
In the Imagination Gallery, (La galerie de l’imaginaire), visitors are able to explore the influence of prehistoric cave art on modern and contemporary artists. This content has been curated by John Paul Jouary, professor, philosopher and author, whose work is devoted to the relationship between Paleolithic art and the art of our time.
 
 
As a striking, contemporary addition to the landscape of the Vezere Valley, Lascaux IV frames a new experience of some of the finest known examples of prehistoric art, and offers profound new ways of understanding the rich heritage of its site. The project is forged of a combination of low-tech and high-tech elements, from the meticulously hand-painted replica to virtual-reality exhibitions, engaging its visitors in a contemporary (re)discovery of the art of our ancestors. Weaving together physical and interpretive concepts and spaces, the holistically conceived center unites Paleolithic art with contemporary approaches to spatial and experiential storytelling.
 





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