俄罗斯莫斯科布尔什维克制造厂改造及私人博物馆(Bolshevik Factory-Museum of Russian Impressionism)- John McAslan + Partners

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项目概况:
建筑设计: John McAslan + Partners
地点: 俄罗斯,莫斯科(Moscow, Russia)
建筑面积: 55000.0 m2
完工时间: 2014
照片版权: Edmund Sumner, Mikhail Rozanov, Courtesy of Belfrod Communications
 
项目简介:
布尔什维克制造厂 (The Bolshevik Factory) 是莫斯科众多前苏联及后苏联工业遗产中最重要的项目之一。制造厂于1855年由 Adolf Sioux 成立,此工厂被誉为莫斯科第一个使用电灯 (1884年) 的建筑。由01 Properties (投资公司) 和策略组织对原来的糕点工厂的重建包括了对莫斯科历史结构的重思以及修改。 位于莫斯科中心的场地囊括了从十九世纪晚期至今的一系列不同历史和风格的建筑共17所。共计50,000平方米的重建成功的融合了工作,生活以及文化的应用。
 
位于列宁格勒大街 (Leningradsky Prospect) 的场地占地四公顷,享有绝佳的位置。在2012年场地被收购之前,布尔什维克制造厂仍处于一片废墟,屋顶摇摇欲坠的状态,十九世纪时建造的砌立面外墙完全被破坏。法国建筑师 Oscar Dio 原先设计的重要元素有: 砌砖外墙,拱形天花板,金属圆柱以及倾斜的屋顶,这些设计元素在重建中均被费尽心思的修复完整。作为城市内历史性保护与可适再利用的范例,项目方案为这个首府大都市添了一分城市多样感。原始元素与新建设计流畅并且感性的结合在一起,形成连贯自然的规模以及统一紧密联系的材料组合。改造修建的每一步都经过与莫斯科历史文化保护局 (Moscow Historic Conservation Authorities) 的仔细斟酌与商讨,并且被誉为实践中最佳历史文化保护项目的模范。
 
该计划包含了大小约从300平方米至15,000平方米的 “阁楼风格”办公空间。超高的天花板和巨大的窗户提供了优良的自然光,通风以及景观。布尔什维克制造厂现在已经是带动了整个白俄罗斯区 ( Belarusskaya ) 经济发展的中心。其租户包括了Leo Burnett, Publicis, Saatchi & Saatchi, Starcom MediaVest, Zenith Optimedia, 和 the VivaKi Media Exchange Group。
 
该项目拥有五层高的前厅,在总体规划中为很多区域实现了流通。由于所有的元素都是非垂直,非并列的,结构上的 “体感” 进而演变成这些 “内部街道”,新的流通路线揭露出原来的制造厂的工业感。
 
布尔什维克联合企业不仅是一个高端住宅群组,同时也囊括了莫斯科的新文化产地——俄罗斯印象主义博物馆 (The Museum of Russian Impressionism) 是莫斯科第一个大型私人博物馆,其为展览空间,电影院,多媒体空间,儿童教育设施,咖啡馆和零售店提供了超过1000平方米的场地。展览空间贯穿三层楼,一楼长期展出永久馆藏,临时展览位于楼上。博物馆延续了场地原有的圆形储物筒仓,真实的折射出制造厂历史,并且定时举办年展,为世人展现各地领先博物馆及私人收藏。
 
方案同时也包括了一些开放场地。背景与地市形成引人入胜的一系列空间,庭院及花园。车辆仅可于外围活动不得入内,为这个大都市的中心提供了一片宁静的绿洲。
 

From the architect. The Bolshevik Factory remains one of Moscow’s most significant examples of pre and post Soviet industrial heritage. Founded in 1855 by Adolf Sioux, the factory was the first building in Moscow to boast electric lighting (in 1884). The redevelopment of the former confectionary factory for 01 Properties and Tactics Group involves the repair of an important piece of Moscow’s historic fabric. Located in the heart of Moscow, the site comprises seventeen buildings of varying ages and styles, including listed buildings dating from the late 19th century. The 50,000 sqm redevelopment is a successful fusion of working, living and cultural uses.
   
The 4 hectare site enjoys a prominent position on Leningradsky Prospect. When the site was acquired in 2012, the Bolshevik Factory was in a ruinous state, with collapsed roofs and the 19th-century brickwork facades seriously damaged. The key elements of the original design by French architect Oscar Dio - the original brick facades, arched ceilings, original metal columns and pitched roofs - have all been painstakingly restored. An examplar of adaptive reuse and historic conservation in the city, the scheme is an important addition to the civic diversity of this great capital city. The mix of restored and new build elements is sensitively and seamlessly combined to create a consistent sense of scale and a coherent palette of materials. Every aspect of the adaptation was carefully negotiated with the Moscow Historic Conservation Authorities and the project has been cited as an exemplar of best practice conservation.  
 
The scheme includes ‘loft-style’ office space ranging in size from 300 to 15,000sqm - high ceilings and large windows provide excellent natural light, ventilation and views. The Bolshevik Factory is now a dynamic economic hub that has significantly enhanced the Belarusskaya district, with tenants including Leo Burnett, Publicis, Saatchi & Saatchi, Starcom MediaVest, Zenith Optimedia, and the VivaKi Media Exchange Group.
   
The project features five-storey atria which provide covered circulation to many parts of the masterplan. These ‘internal streets’ were an exercise in structural ‘gymnastics’ as no element is vertical or aligned. These new circulation routes reveal the original industrial grain of the Factory.  
 
As well as a high-end residential component, The Bolshevik Factory complex also includes a new cultural destination for Moscow - The Museum of Russian Impressionism is the first major private art museum to open in Moscow and provides over 1,000 square meters of exhibition space, a cinema, a multimedia zone, educational facilities for children, a café and retail facilities. The exhibition space is arranged over three floors, with the permanent collection on the ground floor and temporary exhibits on the upper floors. The Museum is an adaption of an existing circular storage silo on the site, making it an authentic part of the Factory’s history and hosts annual exhibitions of works from leading museums and private collections.
 
The scheme also includes open and accessible public realm. The landscaping creates an attractive sequence of spaces, courtyards and gardens, limiting vehicular movement to the perimeter, offering a tranquil oasis in the heart of the capital.
 






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