山西省芮城县五龙庙环境整治(Five-Dragons Temple Environmental Refurbishment)- URBANUS

▲ 点击图片可查看大图,并可进入全屏图集模式 ▲


项目概况:
建筑设计: 都市实践(URBANUS)
地点:山西省,芮城县(Ruicheng County,Yuncheng City,Shanxi Province,China)
主持建筑师: 王辉(Wang Hui)
Team: ZouDehua, Du Aihong, Wen Ting, Anne Van Stijn, Li Xiaofen, Li Yongcai
建筑面积: 267.0 m2
完工时间: 2016
照片版权: Ya
 
项目简介:
五龙庙环境整治工程——文物环境设计的新探索
 
位于山西省芮城县的五龙庙又名广仁王庙,建于唐大和五年(公元831年),时间上位居全国现存的四处唐代建筑第二,也是现存最早的道教建筑,是全国重点文物保护单位。历史上,五龙庙经过数次维修,但其唐代结构基本未变。与五龙庙崇高的历史地位不相称的是其以往的周边环境。五龙庙鲜为人知,到此游人不多。位于高坎之上的庙院作为文保对象,游离出村民的日常生活。庙前土坎下原有景色如画的五龙泉,也因近年水位的下降而干涸。农业灌溉技术的改进、龙王庙祈雨文化的消失、乡村邻里中心的衰弱,都让五龙泉这一村民的精神中心沦落为村里的垃圾堆场。
 
2013年末至2015年初,国家文物部门对五龙庙及戏台进行了重新修复。文物本体的保护虽然提高了,但其环境并没有改观,甚至恶化。随着农村生活水平的提高,村里农舍的翻建越来越高,形式越来越新,而格调则越来越俗。如果说几年前破败的五龙庙还在视觉上搭配周边灰瓦泥墙的村舍,现在的环境则是要倒逼五龙庙去产生一个更强大的气场,来抵制周边环境建设性的恶化,以及为这个历史村庄的发展引导出未来的方向。
 
2015年,万科企业集团在的米兰世博会上建造了一个企业展馆。为了让这个馆在会后留下一笔世博遗产,万科决定投资于五龙庙的环境整治上,开启一项创新的文保尝试。于是,一个叫“龙·计划”的公益众筹活动产生了。“龙·计划”得到山西省文物部门和芮城地方政府的接受和支持,采用众筹方式以及万科捐赠的方式,为五龙庙环境整治项目筹集部分资金,并由企业主导、用企业化的先进管理模式来组织设计和施工,在严格遵循国家文物管理相关规定前提下,完成整个项目的设计与实施。这是一次国家专项资金与社会资金合作进行文物保护事业的新尝试,也是在互联网平台上推广文保工作的新尝试,更是嫁接在世博会的国际平台上宣传中国文物和文保的新尝试。
 
由URBANUS都市实践领衔的环境整治公益设计,得到了历史保护专业、平面设计专业、景观设计专业等合作团队的大力支持,并和万科的实施团队共同努力,在不到一年的时间里,完成了文物保护的国家级审批流程,以及高质量的现场施工,使这个千年古庙的文物本体在获得国家文保资金修葺之后,又获得了环境品质的改善,融入到当下生活。
 
环境整治设计围绕着两条线索展开。明线是以五龙庙为主体,围绕着这个历史文本展开一系列有层次的空间序列,并植入相关展陈,从而使观者能够更好地欣赏、阅读、理解文物,并由此获得在古代文物环境下别样的身心体验和愉悦;暗线则是通过提升五龙庙的环境品质和重新解读五龙庙,加强了这一场所的凝聚力,使村民重新聚集、交往在这一时代相传的公共空间,为当下农村精神价值的重塑创造出契机。
 
环境整治从五龙泉开始。农耕文化的衰落,乡绅文化的消失,自然条件的枯竭,使龙泉变成村里的垃圾场。环境整治后,龙泉遗址被保护,从临近黄河边移植来的芦苇突显历史沧桑感,泥泞的空场变成村民广场,使五龙庙重新成为村民的生活中心,充满生机。
 
窑洞作为本地区最具特色的民居形式,与当地人的生活渐行渐远。我们保留了高台前原有的几眼作为牛圈的窑洞,并用传统的夯土建造方式加以修复,使之成为村民和游人纳凉休憩之所。这个工程雇佣的所有工人都是当地民工,使项目也成为把传统的建造工艺还给了本地人的机会。
 
原五龙庙的主入口为泥泞土坡,雨雪天难以攀登。新的入口在保留原位置的基础上,改为台阶,防止了高台滑坡的危险,方便进出。新建石阶走道结合地形,与保留树木的结合天衣无缝。
 
进入院门,仿生土的混凝土挂板墙围合出序庭。这种根据当地土壤颜色研发出来的挂板既符合可逆性原则,又让整个空间有种土生土长的感觉,色彩与质感与原环境相协调。地面上刻的五龙庙足尺的剖面,和墙上设的中国古建时间轴,一目了然地传达了五龙庙的基本信息。
 
继续前行,当五龙庙第一次完整地呈现在这个狭长的通道上时,一点透视关系聚焦了五龙庙优雅的侧立面。这个场景给人既带来了惊喜,也有崇敬。
 
原庙院空旷寂寥,无景可观。环境整治后,适度缩小了内院尺寸,本体建筑在空间比例上更加突出。围绕五龙庙设计了一系列空间,增加欣赏文物本体的层次。这种尺度和空间的微调,达到了润物细无声的效果。在主殿和戏台之间,扩大的硬质铺地面积,利于保护文物本体不被雨水侵蚀,同时也方便村民在庙院搞民间活动,使这个戏台成为沿承当地非物质戏剧文化遗产的一个重要舞台。
 
北侧在碑墙之后,设了新的观景台,把近处的另一处国宝古魏国城墙遗址和远处的中条山拉进视野,使五龙庙与其周边富具历史信息的环境贯通。
 
环境整治后,原先观看文物的单调方式,变成了各种带景框的阅读,使观众在围绕着五龙庙的各种视觉体验中,不断加深对这个国宝的感触,并引发冥想。
 
围绕着中心庙院的一系列周边空间,被设计成一个个露天的文保展室,使五龙庙成为一个开放的中国古建史博物馆,和一所乡间的建筑学堂。这让文物的生命复苏,让其价值光大,让其魅力永存。
 
对建筑师来说,文物保护范畴内的设计通常是比较保守的,我们也反对激进,但并不放弃在现有环境下探索新的路径,设计中考虑更多的是如何在当下语境中活化文物。一件国宝的可持续生存,不是一座偏僻的乡村所能孤立地支撑的,需要用旅游业来支撑,需要特殊的文物表现方式。五龙庙环境整治工程作为文物环境设计的一次新探索,打破了惯有的保守方式,不同于那种用历史感来突出文物的所谓“原真性”处理,而是使用礼仪化的空间序列来突出文物的崇高感。坦诚而言,这种空间序列也不是参考原真的祭祀礼拜线路,而是符合对这个场所重新编码的当下空间叙事。这种叙事首先还原的是对文物的敬重,从而唤醒了在礼教社会下连穷乡僻壤都不缺失的、而在今天高度物质文明条件下却丢失的邻里文化和民俗文化,并让这种文化融入到当今空心化的乡村日常生活中。

From the architect. Situated in Ruicheng County of Shanxi Province, the Five Dragon Temple (Guang Ren Wang Temple) was built in 831 A.D. during the Tang Dynasty. Ranked chronologically, it is the second oldest among the remaining four architectures of the Tang Dynasty,as well as being the oldest surviving Taoist temple.The Five Dragons Temple experienced several times of renovation during its lifetime, but its structure from the Tang Dynasty remained largely unchanged. However, contrasting to the Five Dragons Temple’s exalted historic position was its previous surrounding environment. The Five Dragons Temple is seldom known and has few visitors. Located on a high slope, the temple as a cultural relic was segregated away from the villagers. Due to arid weather in recent years, the past splendor of the Dragon Spring lying at the bottom of the slope was gone now. Additionally, the advancement in agricultural irrigation technology caused the vanishing of the rain praying culture at dragon temples, thus resulting in the decline of the temple as the neighborhood center. In the end, the Dragon Spring, which was the spiritual core of the villagers, gradually deteriorated into a rubbish dump of the village.
  
From the end of 2013 to early 2015, the National Cultural Relics Bureau restored the Five Dragons Temple and the stage, but the effort only enhanced the buildings, while the surroundings were left unchanged if not worsened. With the improvement of living quality in the village, residential houses became higher and variations in styles. As the tiles and mud walls were replaced in the village, the temple was left in a more desolate state, forcing people to make another thorough renovation. This renovation was intended not only for the renewal of the poor environment of the temple, but also as a new direction in development for this historical village.
 
In 2015, Vanke Group built a pavilion in the Milan Expo, and to leave a legacy after the Expo, Vanke decided to invest in the environmental improvement of the Five Dragons Temple, and initiated the "Long Plan", which is an innovative attempt of cultural relics preservation. The “Long Plan” received support from Shanxi Province’s cultural relics authorities and the local government of Ruicheng county. Part of the funds were raised by crowd-funding along with Vanke\'s donation for the Project of the Five Dragons Temple Environmental Improvement. The whole project was organized under the enterprise management together with the abidance of the relative national cultural relics management regulations. This initiative would then go on to become the precedent where the government and private funds cooperated for cultural relics preservation, as well as the promotion of cultural protection through the platforms of internet and the international Expo.
 
The non-profit environmental improvement design led by URBANUS gained strong support from the specialists of historic preservation, graphic, landscape design and the joint efforts with the Vanke implementation team. In less than a year, the team had gone through the national approval procedures of relics protection. With the completion of on-site construction, this thousand-year-old temple entered modern life with a brand new environment, owing to the high-quality renovation supported by the national fund. 
 
The design of the environment uplift for the Five Dragon Temple was centered around two themes. An outstanding theme was to create layers of overlapping spaces around the main building to tell the story of the temple history and ancient Chinese architecture. Through this theme, people would learn about the knowledge of traditional Chinese architecture to better understand the importance for the preservation of heritage. The latent theme was to restore the temple into an area of public gathering in the village, and to give an alleviated environment to encourage contemporary lifestyles in coherence with the realms of ancient architecture. 
 
The environment effort began with the renovation of the Five Dragon Spring. With the transition from traditional to modern agriculture, as well as the depletion of natural resources, the spring essentially became a garbage yard. After the renovation, the relics were once again protected. The reeds from the banks of the Yellow River matched well with the weathered relics, and the mud ground became a square frequented by villagers. The temple was reinvigorated, and once again became the center of the village.
 
 
As the most characteristic human habitation of the local area since ancient times, cave dwellings have since drifted away from the lives of the locals. The design preserved several cave dwellings that served as livestock quarters found at the foot of the temple hill. They restored them with the traditional rammed-earth method, turning it into a shaded rest area for its visitors. With the participation of local workers, the cave renovations helped the villagers re-master this traditional construction skill.
  
The entrance of the Five Dragon Temple was once a muddy slide, difficult to travel through rain and snow. After the renovation, the dangerous slide was replaced with convenient stone steps. These steps were paved on the original path, preserving the plants along the side of the path.
 
Entering the temple, people would first see a fore-yard with prefabricated concrete with the texture of rammed wall. The cladding, imitating the local soil color, not only is reversible but also looks original, matching well with surrounding environment. A temple miniature carved on the ground and a time line of Chinese architectural history on the wall clearly show the place of the Five Dragon Temple in history. 
 
Entering further through a narrow aisle, one would see the main structure of the Five Dragon Temple. From this perspective, the elegant side of the structure is presented to visitors. People would feel a sense of excitement and reverence upon seeing this picturesque view. 
 
The original temple yard was barren and had nothing to see. After the improvements, the scale of the yard was trimmed in order to accentuate the temple by enlarging the temple-yard scale ratio. A series of spaces was designed around the temple to add layers in appreciation of the cultural relics. The effect of such spatial adjustment proved to be without saying. The ground between the main structure and the theater stage was enlarged and paved. The new ground could also help prevent the temple from suffering water erosion, becoming an ideal place for villagers to hold activities. The stage thus would become an important carrier of local intangible heritages. 
 
To the north, behind the stone wall, one would see a new viewing platform overlooking the other national treasures: the city wall ruins of the ancient State of Wei, and the distant Zhongtiao Mountain. With the platform, all the rich historical elements of the surroundings along with the Five Dragons Temple would form an immediate and intimate connection.
 
After the renovation, visiting the relics would be like reading into the history through views toward the temple. Through a series of visual experience around the temple, visitors can deepen their understanding of this national treasure and trigger further thoughts on history.
  
Spaces around the main structure were renovated into open-air exhibition halls. The temple now looks like a museum of Chinese architectural history, or a rural architecture classroom. The relic is revived. Its value is manifested. Its charm will since endure.
  
For architects, the design in the field of cultural relics’ protection has always been conservative. At the same time we also opposed radicals ideas but would not give up the exploration of new innovations in the existing environment as well as producing new ideas to conserve the cultural relics in present context.The sustenance of a cultural relic cannot simply rely on a singular village, but also the support of tourism, and special outreach to the public. The project of the environmentalimprovement of the Five Dragons Temple is a new exploration in cultural relics environmental design. It break the usual conservative approach and uses a spatial sequence of etiquette to accentuate the history, rather than using the sense of history to highlight its “originality”. Frankly speaking, the spatial sequence did not derive from the original path of worship, but instead is a route for narrative for the present day.The narration first directs the respect towards the cultural relics, thus awakening the culture and customs of the locals in which are difficult to find nowadays in remote villages. By doing so, it integrates into the present village lives the missing pieces of folk culture that has been passed down since ancient times.
 
 





▲ 点击图片可查看大图,并可进入全屏图集模式 ▲


















已邀请:

要发表您的看法,请先登录