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原昆明橡胶厂建筑改造更新(Kunming Rubber Factory Renovation)- Kokaistudios

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项目概况:
建筑设计: Kokaistudios
地点:中国,昆明( Kunming, China)
主持建筑师: Andrea Destefanis, Filippo Gabbiani
Design Manager: Li Wei
建筑面积: 30000.0 m2
完工时间: 2017
照片版权: Dirk Weiblen
 
项目简介:
原昆明橡胶厂,后工业时代密集城区的城市更新项目
 
昆明橡胶厂改造项目位于祖国西南云南省首府昆明市。工厂创建于1956年,坐落于中心城区西山区,总用地面积约1公顷。它曾演绎了一段璀璨夺目的昆明现代轻工业发展史。在上世纪80年代鼎盛时期,工厂职工多达2000余人。然而上世纪90年代中期中国开始了经济改革,,昆明橡胶厂开始衰败继而停产,最终在新世纪来临之初彻底退出了历史舞台。2008年工厂被出让给广基地产进行商业项目的开发。
 
2011年Kokaistudios受邀进行项目改造设计之际,正值昆明经历城市建设的巨变——传统街区和致密的城市肌理不断被抹去,而代之以巨大的商业综合体,高层的写字楼和住宅。城市中充斥了不同尺度空间环境间的割裂和冲突,有着中国最宜居城市美名的昆明正在逐渐改变。
 
橡胶厂周边完整的保持了半个世纪以上高密度的老城环境, 5-6层高度的建筑大多采用传统的墙和水刷石立面,限定了尺度适宜、蜿蜒狭窄的街道,高大的乔木和丰富的生活氛围让城市环境非常宜人,街区中还有东寺塔这样真正的文物遗产。厂区内部虽然充斥了无序的搭建和临时性的构筑物,但是保留了从50年代到80年代不同时期、不同高度体量和结构形式的厂房,50-60年代的青砖,70-80年代的红砖和90年代水刷石立面,构成了丰富的建筑质感和历史氛围。
 
Kokaistudios的设计力图使这一失落的城市场所重焕生机。我们尽量保留原有的历史痕迹,考虑环境、社会、经济和文脉等因素, 把新的生机带入这座后工业厂区。
 
首先,设计计划拆除没有历史和空间价值的仓库车间,为场所内腾挪出公共开放空间和新建筑的可能性。虽然这里没有文物遗产,但是超过30年-50年的建筑已经成为这个场所记忆的物质载体。拆除的计划经过建筑师和结构检测机构审慎的鉴别和反复的评估分析后制定。
 
其次,对保留下来的原有厂区的5栋老房子和一座烟囱——周边最高的构筑物,和北侧的东寺白塔对峙——进行加固,适应性再利用的改造。老建筑肌体尽可能完好的保留其既有的立面肌理,而加固的和适应性的加建采用了与老建筑截然不同的肌理——钢结构、金属饰面和玻璃:新混炼大楼的中庭、老混炼大楼屋顶的玻璃厅和室外露台以及楼梯;联系两栋楼天桥;锅炉房的金属屋顶和室外楼梯等。这些新的构件不仅满足了每栋楼对当代空间和功能的适应性,同时把建筑真实的历史呈现出来。
 
然后,两个新的弧形玻璃体量被柔和的嵌入基地中。建筑柔软的形态和尺度上是柔和的方式介入而立面建筑的立面采用了高大通透的玻璃盒子签入层层的楼板间,已取得和老建筑在尺度上的呼应与对比则是对比底层的架空让建筑漂浮在场地中,保持底层的通透性的同时,重构了场所的内部公共空间和街区的完整性。在新建筑和公共空间的场地下方开挖了2层地下室,满足了这个地块的停车和机电需求。
 
最后,所有建筑的体量自然的生成了景观的场所,原本封闭的厂区变成了开放的街区,广场的尺度完全是周边的城市尺度向场所内部的延伸,从书林街和铁皮巷可以通畅的进入基地内部公共广场。广场被周边建筑围绕着:老混炼大楼已经变成了现在的文化创意loft工作室;新混炼大楼变成了时尚零售、咖啡、餐饮、美食汇和养生健身场所;原来的零件车间变成了现在的现酿啤酒坊;零件压型车间变成了艺术精品酒店;锅炉房变成了俱乐部会所;胶带车间变成了时尚零售、商务办公场所。
 
城市是不断演化的系统,需要被不断更新以适应不断变化的需求。Kokaistudios坚信为城市的完整性而设计。在昆明项目中,老建筑和新建筑,不同时代不同质感的材料与构件,在这里交织成一个城市空间 “保护与创新”的交响乐章。

Design Team: Pietro Peyron, Zheng Yong, Qin Zhantao, Neo Nie, Liu Chang, Anna-Maria Austerweil, Yu Liding, Zou Chenqing, Annsy Chen, Sandino Ancilla
LDI: Yunnan Design Institute Group
Landscape Design : Musen Landscape
Client: Kunming Realtop Real Estate Co., Ltd
 
An urban renewal project in the dense area of a post- industrial city
 
The Kunming Rubber Factory occupies a hectare site area in the central Xishan District of Kunming, the capital city of the south-western Chinese province of Yunnan. The factory was founded in 1956, at a time when the city’s modern light industry was flourishing and it continued to expand reaching its peak economic output in the 1980’s and counted 2000 employees.However as China began embarking on its economic reforms in the mid 1990’s the factory began to experience serious economic difficulties and stopped production and fell into bankruptcy around the turn of the century; and was eventually taken over by the Winart Group with the target of undertaking an innovative urban renewal commercial development.
 
When Kokaistudios was invited by the client at 2011, Kunming\' scity appearance was undergoing radical changes; the original urban texture was constantly being erased and replaced by gigantic mixed-use projects . The end result was that the integrity of the city was broken by constructions of various scales; and the city was rapidly losing its urban texture and elements that had long made it one of China’s most livable and charming cities.
 
The factory was surrounded by 5 to 6-storey brick and cement facade residence buildings, schools and other supportingfacilities. The whole area is dense, vibrant and has a rich cultural heritage including the Qing dynasty East Temple Tower.Within the factory itself, we discovered in our analysis a rich texture of buildings, structures, and materials from different historical eras thus creating the basis for an innovative intervention. For instance, we found black bricks from 1950-60s, red bricks from 1970-80s and cement facade from the 1990s; the materials expressed the evolution of the history of the complex.
 
Kokaistudios came up with a scheme that emphasized retaining the history of the site while re-qualifying its dynamic and functions. We kept as much of its originality as a way to protect the history of the site.With a comprehensive approach, looking at the environmental, socio-economic and cultural contexts, we aimed to breathe new life into this post-industrial site by reinstating public vibrancy and efficiency.
 
First of all, we demolished the warehouse workshop which had little historical heritage nor re-use value to make way for public open spaces and new architectural structures; a process that was undertaken after deep study and coordination with the local authorities.
 
Secondly, we adaptively reused 5 old factory buildings and kept the signature smokestackwhich is the highest structure in the area. We retained as much of the original facade as possible, and then strenghthen it with steel, metal and glass to create a strong contrast. Restored areas includes the atrium of the new mixing building, the glass hall of the old mixing building roof, the outdoor terrace and the staircase; the connecting building bridge; the metal roof of the boiler room and the outdoor stairsetc.These new contemporary structures and components stand in clear contrast to the heritage portions of the project; thus valorizing both the old and new.
 
Then, two new curved glass bodies are embedded in the site with soft shape and appropriate scale. These new architectures are sitting on columns to invite circulation and add openness to the community and act to create framed views of the historical buildings. The combination of the buildings allows for blurred boundaries between the development and the city thus inviting the community to make the space its own.
 
Finally this enclosed site are openned up: visitors can enter the public space from either Shulin Street or Tiepi Ally. A brand new lifestyle hub is in front of people: the old mixing building has became a creative loft; the former workshop building has became a lifestyle center accomendates retail, cafes, restaurants and gym facilities; the machine parts workshop has transformed into a brewery; the boiler room is a club now and the tape workshop has evovled into a retail and office space.
 
Cities are ever-evolving systems, requiring updates and renewals to accommodate changing demands, habits and expectations. Kokaistudios believes strongly in designing for urban integrity. For the Kunming Winart project, old industrial heritage and new contemporay architecture are woven together with considerations of social values and community benefits and the project is bringing new energy into the city.
 





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