加拿大魁北克湖滨别墅(Maison sur le Lac)- ACDF Architecture

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项目概况:
建筑设计: ACDF Architecture
地点: 加拿大,魁北克(Lake Memphrémagog, Quebec, Canada)
设计团队: Maxime-Alexis Frappier, Martin Champagne, Christelle Montreuil Jeanpois, Clothilde Caillé-Lévesque, Maxime Boisselle, Maxime Boily
建筑面积: 360.0 m2
 
项目简介:
姐妹情与乡村景观
位于加拿大东部乡村的门弗雷梅戈格湖(Memphremagog)的湖滨,湖畔别墅是为一对目前在蒙特利尔(Montreal)和 美哥格(Magog)之间不断来回奔波的本土姐妹设计的第二居所。两姐妹都十分热爱音乐和自然,并且十分希望自己的住宅有一个宽阔的室外居住空间,这样她们就可以在享受烹饪和美食的同时,直接将自己置身于河边和大自然中。
 
因此,在本住宅的中心区域有三个强大而统一的设施:厨房、餐桌和钢琴。就像Memphremagog河畔的景观一样,住宅是以一个开放的形态建立的,没有实体的物理界限。设计方案从景观入手,着重考虑将周边的美丽风景变成建筑的一部分。广阔的农业用地和山谷一直延伸到地平线,将山中的景观完全打开唯一的视觉限制就是栏栅和石头围墙。
 
位于场地的中央,栏栅被重新定义为一个连续的木制环带。木制环带从地平面拔地而起,通过调整建筑开放空间的方式来包围住宅的居住空间。建筑水平的开口使住户可以观赏自然和Memphremagog河的全景。在此,人们可以获得的景观体验多种多样。同时,尽管景观不断变化,但是住宅的简洁性和体块构成都是基于这个对基地的处理方式之上的。
 
除了在特定的区域内需要使用栏栅来界定空间,住宅自然地占据了当地的景观全貌,通过捕获其中心区域的景观实质来创造一个功能性空间。东部村镇的当地建筑形态多为木质的农村建筑物和粗石料建造而成的可持续性建筑,在此它们被重新诠释,定义了毫不吝啬地朝向景观开放的现代建筑。
 
环境
住宅由基地的南侧进入。在入口处,由东向西延伸的重叠水平带强调了木质外壳的概念。铁质镶板从一个半透明实体处开始转变成更加传统的实体建筑外壳,将入口处的内部庭院隐藏起来。周边的自然景色和附近的湖景都在建筑的大面积水平窗户上落下了点点投影。
 
所产生的木质体块通过一个保存了铁杉痕迹的混凝土体块被紧紧地固定在地上,看上去就像是一个被石化的木头。在建筑的西侧,一个隐蔽的走廊朝向湖边的落日景色,同时东侧的车库(车间)不仅包含着住宅的技术性空间,还定义了一个室内庭院,这个室内庭院不受风雨的侵袭,因此也可以被当做一个次要的平台。与轻型铁杉木材相对比的是建筑的石制部分,石制体量位于建筑的两端,将建筑牢牢地固定在地面上,让人联想到包裹着岩石的树根。
 
平衡、材料和再利用
厌倦于过多杂物堆积的客户希望自己能有一个相对平衡的生活方式,不需要复杂的技术,也不用花费过多的精力去保养建筑材料。因此,这座住宅的特点在于减少了占地面积,没有使用复杂的机械系统,和极其本土化的处理手法。
 
住宅内并没有传统意义上的HVAC系统(空调通风系统)。仅仅采用被动原理来确保建筑所需要的通风和热量得失。为了最大程度减少夏日里建筑的获能,设计师的构想是木制环带在某些时刻可以作为防晒板、结构墙体或者半透明幕墙,以此来实现目的。与建筑外壳相连,同时立面使用的玻璃具有超常的绝缘性,南北向的自然通风和屋顶的悬挂结构按照日光的方向精心设计,来确保住宅的舒适性。
 
当地的铁衫木是建筑的主要材料,这种自然木材随着时间的推移,表面会有点点铜绿。因此,住宅也会随着时间的进程而慢慢与自然环境融为一体,与基地内的树木相辅相成。就像是由再生谷仓板制作的室内家具一样,该建筑对当地材料的运用使其与乡村建筑有了直接的联系,这也确保了该建筑的寿命和耐久性。从周围的耕地围墙上回收来的抛光石材地板铺面覆盖了整个地面,具有建筑蓄热的作用。选择的材料的舒适性、简洁性和温暖性有助于构建客户期待的居住环境,宜人的环境巧妙地伴随着厨房传来的糖塔的阵阵香气,给人一种家的温馨感。
翻译:刘丹阳

Structural Engineer: Jean Marc Dugré Ingénieur
General Contractor:Constructions Boivin
 
TWO SISTERS & THE RURAL LANDSCAPE
Located on the shores of Lake Memphremagog in the Eastern Townships, the House of the lake is a secondary residence designed for two sisters who are native to the region, and currently oscillate between Montreal and Magog. Rapidly, the two clients who love music, nature and the land expressed their desire for a home with an open living area, where gastronomy and good dishes are prepared in direct relation to nature and the lake. At the heart of the space thus settle the three strong and unifying elements of the project: the kitchen, the dining table and the piano.
 
Like Memphremagog`s landscape, the house is built with openness as a mindset, without physical boundaries. The starting point for the architecture is that of the immediate landscape; the scenic beauty of the surroundings. Large agricultural lands and valleys, whose only visual limits are fences and stone walls, extending to the horizon and opening again to other mountainous landscapes.
 
Located in the center of the site, the fence is redefined as a continuous wood band. From the ground, the wood band rises and envelops the living spaces by modulating the openings of the house. The horizontal openings define panoramic views of nature and the lake. Experiences with the landscape are many and varied. And despite the changing views, simplicity and volumetric organization of the house are based on this simple anchorage to the site.
 
The house naturally takes up this idea of the local landscape so often panoramic, except that the limits of a fence are used here to define the space, creating a place for the program by trapping the substance of landscape in its center. Vernacular typology of the Eastern Townships, the wooden farm buildings and sustainable construction made of field stone, is reinterpreted to define the modern house that is generously opened on the landscape.
 
CONTEXT
The residence is intended to be approached from the south of the site. Upon arrival, the overlapping horizontal bands that extend from East to West highlight the concept of the wooden enclosure. The hemlock paneling shifts from a semi-transparent substance, hiding the inner courtyard at the entrance of the house, to a more conventional opaque envelope. Large horizontal windows reflect the surrounding nature and the nearby lake.
 
The resulting wooden object is solidly anchored to the ground by a concrete mass that conserves the traces of the hemlock, like fossilized wood. On the western side, a screened porch is oriented towards the view of the sunsets over the lake, while the eastern garage/workshop includes the technical spaces of the house and contributes to defining the interior courtyard, which is sheltered from the wind and acts as a secondary terrace. In contrast to the light wood hemlock, the stone mass at both ends of the house firmly anchors the building to the ground, reminiscent of tree roots that envelope rock masses.
 
BALANCE, MATERIALITY AND REUSE
The clients, tired of accumulating superfluous goods, demonstrated their desire to return to a balanced lifestyle, simple technologies, and materials requiring little maintenance. Thus, the house is distinguished by a reduced footprint, the absence of a complex mechanical system and its vernacular approach.
 
No traditional HVAC system is installed in the residence. Only passive principles are proposed to ensure proper ventilation and solar gain control. To minimize heat gain in the summer, variations in relief if the wood band sometimes act as a sunscreen or sometimes as a structural wall or semi-transparent screen. Combined with an envelope and glazing with exceptional insulation, natural ventilation through North-South and roof overhangs carefully oriented according to daylight ensure occupant comfort.
 
The local hemlock wood which is the main material of the residence is left natural and will gain a gray patina over time. The house will slowly begin to blend in with the natural environment, fitting perfectly into the trees that already inhabit the site. The use of local materials, such as reclaimed barn boards that make up the built-in furniture and the central staircase, provide a direct link to rural buildings that are proof of longevity and durability. Recycled from the agrarian walls of the surroundings, the polished stone floor paving covers the entire ground level and acts as thermal mass. The comfort, simplicity and warmth of the materials chosen are conducive to the family atmosphere desired by the dwellers and subtly accompany the aromas of sugar tarts that simmer in the kitchen!
 





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