项目概况:
建筑设计:Urban Rural Systems
地点:印尼(Batam, Indonesia)
主持建筑师:Stephen Cairns
建筑面积:36.0 m2
完工时间:2018
照片版权:Dio Guna Putra 
 
项目简介:
位于印度尼西亚的巴淡岛,“可扩张住宅”是城市快速发展的可持续性应对方案之一。巴淡岛位于廖内群岛内,曾经是由安逸的渔村组成的,每个渔村不过数千人口。但不到40年内已经发展成超过百万居民的都市。巴淡岛的迅猛发展势头,由新的自由贸易协议和接近新加坡的地理优势推动,丝毫没有减退的趋势。为寻找新的机遇,年轻人从印尼各地移民到此。2015年巴淡岛被誉为全球最快发展城市。同时带来的是重大的城市规划问题:如何容纳移民流?如何提供足够的达到水质和排污标准的住宅?如何筹资建造合格的交通系统,学校,大学和医院?
 
“可扩张住宅”项目关注的是住宅供应的挑战。这个模型了解并适应了不同住户的资源消耗和开支,或者说是新陈代谢:包括家庭收入和支出,水电和食品的消耗率,垃圾排量。这种新陈代谢率通常不平均也不稳定,所以每个单元本身提供了居住和商用空间,也在地管理本身的垃圾和水电。
 
以下列出的是“可扩张住宅”的5个设计准则:
 
1. “三明治式”截面。建筑的屋顶被设计为可升降型,而现有楼层和地基(“面包”)也足够支撑最多三个加盖楼层(“夹心”)。这样的系统提供了灵活的融资方式:开发商或国家房屋供给部门提供屋顶和地基,而住户根据各自情况和预算提供楼层。同时,住户也可以通过加入商店,咖啡店,车库,村舍等功能以维持生计。
 
2. 居住空间密度。住宅鼓励了居住空间的垂直密度。工作和居住一体的房屋减少了农业用地中的住宅占地面积,同时也缓解了对昂贵的基建(道路,电力系统,供水系统)的需求。
 
3. 去中心化系统。每个单元都配备了雨水回收和太阳能,排污和化粪池,无动力制冷系统,避免了使用昂贵但不可靠的“中心化”基础设施建设(“大管道”)。
 
4. 生产化景观。“可扩张住宅”在地提供食品和建材生产系统:布局中考虑了竹种植园,厨房花园的位置,这样也进一步增加了这种住宅的资源基础密度。
 
5. “种子套装”。“可扩张住宅”被设计为一个“种子套装”,其包含的技术,材料策略和规划准则,可以根据不同的社会,文化和环境特点被继续发展。我们的目的是将“种子套装”培育成多样的热带小镇。



Design Team:Miya Irawati, Chen Ting, Azwan Aziz, Dio Guna Putra, Sumiadi Rahman
Collaborators:: Alwi (community leader), Batam Municipal Planning Authority (BAPPEDA), Rahmat Kurniawan
Consultants:Engineer (Batam), Teddy Tambuan; Engineer (Singapore), Johannes Müller; Foundations Contractor (A Square Engineering)
Budget:USD 25,000
 
Text description provided by the architects. The expandable house (‘rumah tambah’ in Bahasa Indonesia, or rubah for short) is designed to be one part of a sustainable response to the challenges of rapidly developing cities like Batam, in Indonesia’s Riau Archipelago. Once a collection of sleepy fishing villages of a few thousand inhabitants, Batam developed to be a cosmopolitan city of over one million people in less than 40 years. This remarkable growth, fueled by a new free trade agreement and Batam’s proximity to Singapore, has not abated. Young migrants from all over Indonesia moved there to seek their fortune. By 2015 Batam was named the fastest growing city in the world. As a consequence, the city was confronted by major planning problems: How to accommodate the influx of migrants? How to provide sufficient housing, and appropriate water and sewage systems? How to fund adequate transport infrastructure, and provide schools, universities and hospitals?

The expandable house project focuses on the challenge of housing. It does so by allowing the building to be flexibly configured around the fluctuating patterns of resource consumption and expenditure, or metabolism, of its residents. Practically this means understanding the patterns of household income generation and expenditure, water, energy and food consumption, as well as waste production. As this metabolism is usually uneven and often precarious, it is important that the architecture can be a dwelling and income generating unit, that manages its own waste, water and energy locally.

The expandable house is designed around the following five principles:

1. Sandwich Section. The house provides a roof that can be hoisted, and floor and foundations (the bread) that can support up to three additional floors (the filling). This system allows flexible financing whereby the developer or state housing agency provides the roof and foundations, while the residents provide infill as their circumstances require and budget allows. It also helps accommodate crucial income generating functions (shop, café, garage, cottage industry) along with dwelling.

2. Domestic Density. The house encourages domestic densification in the vertical dimension. This supports the benefits of co-location of dwellings and employment. It also helps to reduce the settlement footprint on arable land, and the demand for expensive infrastructures (roads, electrical and potable water networks).

3. Decentralized Systems. Rainwater harvesting and solar electricity generating technologies, sewage and septic tank systems, and passive cooling principles are integrated locally with the expandable house, avoiding expensive and often unreliable centralized, or ‘big pipe’, approaches to infrastructure provision.

4. Productive Landscapes. The expandable house integrates food and building material production capacity locally. This is achieved by integrating bamboo plantations and kitchen gardens into the planning logic of the house, and helps further diversify the resource base of the expandable house.

5. Seed Package. The expandable house is designed as a seed package, containing technologies, material strategies and planning guidelines that can develop in different ways depending on local social, cultural and environmental conditions. We intend that diverse tropical towns will grow from the common seed package.
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