卡塔尔国家图书馆(Qatar National Library )- OMA

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项目概况:
建筑设计:OMA
地点:卡塔尔,多哈(Doha, Qatar)
主持建筑师:Rem Koolhaas, Ellen van Loon, Iyad Alsaka
建筑面积:45000.0 m2
完工时间:2017
照片版权:Iwan Baan, Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti, Hans Werlemann
 
项目简介:
库哈斯自述:
书籍的物理影响对于个人的塑造来说很重要。GustaveDoré绘制插画的格林童话是让我着迷的第一本书。我仍然清楚地记得那些书本的实体感,那是我一生中最深刻的记忆之一。上世纪50年代,我就像一直呆在起居室那样花了很多时间在阿姆斯特丹市立博物馆图书馆里。我第一次将写作和建筑融合产物是我在纽约公共图书馆写的《癫狂的纽约》。我从早到晚都坐在同一个座位翻阅缩微胶卷、旧报纸和书籍,那几乎成了我的专座。
 
建筑和制书之间的一个相似之处在于,它们都具有令人难以置信的悠久传统,但也被迫面对现实而不断更新以求生存。我们设计过许多图书馆,并建造了其中一些。作为一种类型学,图书馆非常适合产出激进前卫的建筑。显然,图书馆的传统的形式与产生创造性解决方案是矛盾的,而卡塔尔国家图书馆正是这么一个创新的方案。该建筑长138米,相当于两架波音747的长度。这并不是在吹嘘它的尺度,而是因为从一开始,我们的想法就是要让阅读尽可能的平易近人并激励卡塔尔的全体人民。我们认为这想法可以通过设计一栋似乎就是一个大房间,而不是划分成不同的部分或不同楼层的建筑来实现。
 
我们先放置一块楼板,然后将它的角落折起来变成放置书架的平台,同时也提供了进入图书馆的入口。当你走进的那一刻,你立刻被每一本书所包围 - 所有都实际存在着,看得见,够得着,毫不费力。这座图书馆是一个可以容纳所有的人,也可以容纳所有书的空间......
 
项目更多介绍:
卡特尔国家图书馆包含了多哈国立图书馆、公共图书馆和大学图书馆,同时馆内藏有和阿拉伯-伊斯兰文化相关的珍贵的文献和手稿。届时公共图书馆将馆藏超过十万本书籍,为成千上万的读者提供超过42000平方米的阅读场所。该图书馆是教育城的一部分----在教育城中分布着世界顶尖知名院校的研究所分部。
 
自1989年法国国家图书馆竞赛以来,OMA就一直展现出对图书馆设计的兴趣,卡塔尔国家图书馆就是他们最新的成果。在那个时候,“信息革命”就开始“开始削减人们对知识的专注程度”(S,M,L,XL)。图书馆的建造开始被质疑:我们还需要图书馆吗?图书馆能在电子信息的时代生存吗?通过卡塔尔国家图书馆,我们希望能够通过设计创造读者与馆藏之间学习、研究、合作和互动的关系来展示书籍的重要性----这些馆藏超过十万本,其中有一些是中东地区独一无二的手抄本。
 
该图书馆是一个容纳书籍和人的单一体量。建筑物的边缘从底层抬升起,形成了三个通道----这三个通道容纳了书架,同时也围合出了一个三角形的中心空间。这种结构让参观者能够直接进入建筑的中心,而不必从建筑的边缘进入。建筑的入口通道被设计成起伏的书架形式,散步在空间中的是阅读、社交和浏览区。书架也因为其材料的选择成为了建筑的一部分----它们和建筑的地面和结构使用了相同的白色大理石材料,同人工照明、通风和还书系统一起,使建筑内外成为一个整体。
 
一个无柱支撑桥连接了图书馆的主要通道,让人们可以在建筑中自由穿行。这个“桥”也是一个开放的自由空间:它容纳了媒体学习室、阅读桌、媒体展示厅、一个圆形的会议桌和大型多媒体音响系统,被由阿姆斯特丹事务所InsideOutside设计的可移隔帘围合,这个事务所也负责景观设计
 
遗产文献馆位于图书馆中心----这是一个类似于挖掘现场的六米深空间,被米色的石灰华覆盖。该馆藏独立运作,从外部可以直接进入。褶皱的玻璃立面过滤了不必要的自然光线,创造了阅读的宁静氛围。散射光通过铝制屋顶反射进建筑内部核心空间。在外部,一个下沉式的露台为底层的员工办公室提供了自然光线,同时也作为进入书籍世界的过渡空间。
 
卡塔尔国家图书馆在教育城中起着关键作用,项目发起者Her Highness Shiekha Mozah 和卡塔尔基金会致力于通过该项目促进卡塔尔向知识密集型经济转型。项目的总体规划由Arata Isozaki于1995年设计并从2003年开始实施,该规划区由教育和研究机构组成,包含了在国际上享有盛誉的大学的多个分部,以及卡塔尔基金会的总部----由OMA设计并于2016年完工。

Design Team SD, DD and CD:Sebastian Appl, Laura Baird, Andrea Bertassi, Helen Billson, Benito Branco,Nils Christa, Daniel Colvard, Tom Coronato, Anita Ernodi, Clarisa Garcia-Fresco, Dina Ge, Mauricio Gonzales, Bermy Ho, Vincent Kersten, Keigo Kobayashi, Dimitri Koubatis, Jang Hwan Lee, Oliver Luetjeus, Bimal Mendis, Joaquin Millan Villamuelas, Barbara Modolo, David Nam, Sebastian Nau, Rocio Paz Chavez, Francesca Portesine, Teo Quintana, Miriam Roure Parera, Peter Richardson, Silvia Sandor, Tjeerd van de Sandt, Louise Sullivan, Anatoly Travin, Yibo Xu
Executive Team and On Site Team:Vincent Kersten, Gary Owen
Sub-Consultants:ARUP Acoustics
DHV Fa?ade:ABT
Cost analyst: David Langdon
Interior, Curtains, Landscape:Inside Outside
Construction Document Phase:CCDI
 
The Library by Rem Koolhaas?
The physical impact of books has been important in terms of my entire formation. The first books that fascinated me?were the fairy tales of Grim illustrated by Gustave Doré. I still remember the physical nature of those books as one?of the strongest memories of my entire life. In the 1950s I would spend time in the library of the Stedelijk Museum –?almost like in a living room. My first intersection of writing and architecture was Delirious New York, which I wrote in the New York Public Library, going through microfilms, old newspapers, and books. I made one particular seat my?own, almost day and night.
 
One similarity between architecture and bookmaking is that both have unbelievably long traditions but are also forced to be of the moment, constantly updating in order to survive. We have designed many libraries and built a few. Libraries, as a typology, are so exceptionally suitable to produce radical architecture. Apparently, there is a paradox that such a traditional form produces inventive solutions, and that is the case for the Qatar National Library. The building is 138 meters long, equivalent to the length of two 747s. This is not to boast about scale but because from the beginning the idea was to make reading as accessible and as stimulating as possible to the population of Qatar as a whole. We thought we could achieve that by creating a building that was almost a single room, not divided in different sections, certainly not into separate floors.
 
We took a plate and folded its corners up to create terraces for the books, but also to enable access in the center of the room. You emerge immediately surrounded by literally every book – all physically present, visible, and accessible, without any particular effort. The library is a space that could contain an entire population, and also an entire population of books...
 
Project Description
Qatar National Library contains Doha’s National Library, Public Library and University Library, and preserves the Heritage Collection, which consists of valuable texts and manuscripts related to the Arab-Islamic civilization. The public library will house over a million books and space for thousands of readers over an area of 42,000 m2. The library is part of the Education City, a new academic campus which hosts satellite campuses from leading universities and institutions from around the world.
 
Qatar National library is the latest expression of OMA’s long-term interest in the library, which goes back to the competition for the National Library of France in 1989. At that moment, the “electronics revolution” seemed “to eliminate all necessity for concentration and physical embodiment” of knowledge (S,M,L,XL). The whole raison d\'être of the library was being questioned: Would we still need libraries? Could libraries survive the digital culture? With Qatar National Library, we wanted to express the vitality of the book by creating a design that brings study, research, collaboration and interaction within the collection itself – a collection that consists of over one million volumes, among which are some of the most important and rare manuscripts in the Middle East.

 
The library is conceived as a single room which houses both people and books. The edges of the building are lifted from the ground creating three aisles which accommodate the book collection and, at the same time, enclose a central triangular space. This configuration also allows the visitor to access the building at its center, rather than laboriously entering from the perimeter. The aisles are designed as a topography of shelving, interspersed with spaces for reading, socializing and browsing. The bookshelves are meant to be part of the building both in terms of materiality – they are made of the same white marble as the floors – and of infrastructure – they incorporate artificial lighting, ventilation, and the book return system.
 
 
A column-free bridge connects the library’s main aisles, allowing for a variety of routes throughout the building. The bridge is also a meeting space: it hosts media and study rooms, reading tables, exhibition displays, a circular conference table, and a large multipurpose auditorium, enclosed by a retractable curtain designed by Amsterdam studio InsideOutside, who were also responsible for the landscaping.
 
 
The heritage collection is placed at the center of the library in a six-meter-deep excavated-like space, clad in beige travertine. The collection can also operate autonomously, directly accessible from the outside. The corrugated-glass fa?ade filters the otherwise bright natural light, creating a tranquil atmosphere for reading. The diffuse light is directed further into the core of the building by a reflecting aluminium ceiling. Outside, a sunken patio provides light to the staff office space in the basement, and at the same time acts as transition space before entering the world of books.
 
Qatar National Library plays a central role in the Education City, a project initiated by Her Highness Shiekha Mozah and the Qatar Foundation as part of Qatar’s transition to a knowledge-based economy. The master plan, designed by Arata Isozaki in 1995 and inaugurated in 2003, consists of education and research facilities, including branches of internationally acclaimed universities and the headquarters of the Qatar Foundation, also designed by OMA and completed in 2016.





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