香港大馆(古迹及艺术馆)之赛马会立方及艺方(加建) -(Tai Kwun, Centre for Heritage & Art )- 赫尔佐格 & 德梅隆(Herzog & de Meuron)

编辑导读:在历史建筑群里如何加建建筑物,如何处理好与历史建筑的关系,如何探索全新的场地关系?建筑师将新建体量悬空于原历史建筑之上,由此创造了全新的场地关系。而立面上铺就的铝表皮则表达了别样的现代质感。(经典值评价:7.5)
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项目概况:
建筑设计:Herzog & de Meuron
地点:香港中環荷李活道10號(10 Hollywood Rd, Central, Hong Kong)
主持建筑师:Jacques Herzog, Pierre de Meuron, Ascan Mergenthaler (Partner in charge)
馆名称:较大体量:赛马会艺方:大馆当代艺术馆(前称奥卑利美术馆);较小体量:赛马会立方(前称亚毕诺综艺馆)
建筑面积:27000.0 m2
完工时间:2018
照片版权:Iwan Baan
 
项目简介:
“大馆”位于香港商业中心,大馆内原本作为中区警署、中央裁判司署、域多利监狱等用途,是一座被围墙围起来由各种历史建筑组成古建筑群。这是在1841年后由英国人建立,里面主要是作为殖民地的香港警署、裁判法院和监狱等设施,目前该地是香港现存最重要的历史遗迹之一。 在2006年停止使用后,整个院落被清空,只留下了一块空地和一系列独特的建筑。 从城市的角度来看,这是个位于世界上人口最密集的城市之一的市中心的一个罕见的“庭院”。
 
这座曾经高居在山坡之上,象征着法律和秩序的权威,它俯瞰着的海港,如今已经成为了一个矗立在商业建筑和住宅高楼林立之中的开放而宁静的城市绿洲。这个院落由两个大庭院组成:阅兵场和监狱。我们的目标是在保持这两个院落的开放性和独特性的同时将它们重新激活,并将这里作为一个新型的城市探索空间向公众开放。在空间的功能上主要定义为用来聚会、文化交流和娱乐休闲的场所。
 
阅兵场的两侧是一些有着悠久历史的建筑,并形成了一个正式的开放空间,里面有宽敞的空间可以进行公共娱乐等活动、还可以直接进入餐馆和零售商店以及一些较小规模的文化和教育空间。监狱操场被巧妙地从令人生畏的区域转变为一个致力于文化活动的新的开放公共空间。增加新的艺术和文化项目是开放和激活前监狱操场的关键策略之一。两个新建的体量紧靠在周围花岗岩的墙壁上,既没有影响到现有的建筑结构,又形成了一个设计独特的新元素。
 
墙壁上的悬臂结构可以与相邻结构保持最小距离,并可使建筑面积最大化,同时保持在分区范围内,并通过偏移,创造出与周围历史建筑物间隔性的保护空间。作为一种建筑表达方式,它也清晰地区分了新建筑和历史建筑。前警察署建筑主要集中在较低的院子里,它们面对这街道,坐落在花岗岩之上,充分的显示出它们在这个城市的权威性和存在感。而监狱建筑则位于墙后,出于安全原因,它一直与公共通道和人们的视线隔离开来。
 
新楼在体量上没有参照任何历史,反而通过在向上盘旋的方式创造了一种全新的场地关系。通过增大体量,让公共空间悬空,从而保持宽敞的聚会和活动空间,引导亚诺毕道和奥卑利道上的行人在此连接点交汇。同时,这些建筑群也为这个城市一个隐蔽的地点打开了大门。奥卑利馆在整个建筑群的西南方向,其设计是为了跟F馆紧密关联,这两个馆之间的连接也会很快建立起来。
 
两个建筑楼会共同展示当代艺术。奥卑利馆的中庭入口是悬空于原来的古迹建筑之上。这样的入口不收风雨天气影响,是一个市民聚集的据点,也是F会堂和奥卑利翼的共同门厅。F馆是一个多功能的展览空间,既可办展也可以举行特别活动。大部分的建筑都保留了原来的历史特点和痕迹。对比之下,奥卑利馆会举行更为大型的展览,因为空间的灵活性更大。透光的屋顶让自然光进入展馆顶层。
 
第二层是一个带户外阳台的餐厅,客人们可以看到丰富的城市景象还有建筑群屋顶的质感。建筑的东南方向是亚诺毕馆,此馆也是一个新地标。建筑体量上也是悬空于古迹之上的设计,创造一个可以遮阳的户外公共空间。在这个空间里,民众可以在楼梯上松弛地聚集,欣赏表演及观赏电影。
 
由于楼高限制相对宽松,设计师在顶层建设了两个层高八米的多功能空间,宽敞的室内架起了屋顶有规律的格栅结构,并为供应大馆全址的机电及冷却系统预留了空间。大馆的新楼都是以铝制的立面铺就,在其大小比例方面,展示了与该址原有的花岗岩护墙相似的视觉质感,在大馆整体建筑群内确立彼此的联系。
 
值得一提的是,所有铝材均是100%经过回收再造,让新建筑得以在历史建筑群中以别样的方式表达其现代形态和质感。此外,铝制立面上有规律的洞孔和纹路还提供了遮阳挡雨以及部分结构作用,在从内到外回应功能需求的同时,也顾及到香港当地亚热带的气候。若仔细观察会留意到立面的模块呈现出一种经过磨砺的质感,在多个模块的堆叠下有助减轻建筑整体在日照下的反光问题。在晚上,建筑内部透出的光亮则通过立面的过滤,在展现出室内的动态的同时,亦避免了为城市带来光污染。
 
图注:艺术馆内(艺方)的螺旋状楼梯贯穿四层艺术展览厅,成为拍照热点

Project Team:Edman Choy (Associate, Project Director), Chi-Yan Chan (Project Manager), Vladimir Pajkic (Associate, Project Director, until 2011), Raymond Jr. Ga?tan (Associate, until 2012). Abdulfatah Adan, Roman Aebi, Maximilian Beckenbauer, Aurélie Blanchard, Emi Jean Bryan, Alexander Bürgi, Soohyun Chang, Julien Combes, Massimo Corradi, Duarte De Azevedo Coutinho Lobo Antunes, Dorothee Dietz, Peter Dougherty, Piotr Fortuna, Luis Gisler, Carl Kristoffer H?gerstr?m, Kelvin Ho, Justin Hui, Kentaro Ishida, Anna Jach, Sara Jardim Manteigas, Hauke Jungjohann, Anssi Kankkunen, Rina Ko, Johannes Rudolf Kohnle, Dannes Kok, Pawel Krzeminski, Jin Tack Lim, Mark Loughnan, Jaroslav Mach, Donald Mak, James Albert Martin, José Ramón Mayoral Moratilla, Olivier Meystre, Lukas Nordstr?m, Cristian Oprea, Leonardo Pérez-Alonso, Thomas Polster, Maki Portilla Kawamura, Tom Powell, Günter Schwob, Oana Stanescu, Kai Strehlke, Fumiko Takahama, Zachary Vourlas, Kenneth Wong, Sung Goo Yang, Daniela Zimmer
Design Consultant:Herzog & de Meuron, Basel, Switzerland
Executive Architect:Rocco Design Architects Ltd., Hong Kong, China
Conservation Architect:Purcell, London, UK
 
Client:The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Hong Kong
Client Representative:John Latter (Head of Property Project Management), Timothy Calnin (Director of Tai Kwun)

Text description provided by the architects. The former Central Police Station, the Central Magistracy, and the Victoria Prison is a walled compound of heritage buildings at the commercial center of Hong Kong Island. Established by the British after 1841 as the colony’s main police station, magistracy, and prison, the site is one of Hong Kong’s most important remaining historic monuments. Following its decommissioning in 2006, the entire compound was vacated, leaving a set of open grounds and a collection of unique buildings. From an urban perspective, the compound is a rare “courtyard” in the middle of one of the densest cities in the world.
 
 
What once stood on the hillside as a prominent symbol of law and order with commanding views to the harbor has now inversely become an urban oasis of openness and calm within a forest of commercial and residential high-rises. The compound is defined and structured by two large courtyards: the Parade Ground and the Prison Yard. Our goal is to preserve the openness and distinct character of both and to re-activate them for public use as a new type of urban found space. These spaces will define the site physically and programmatically as places of gathering, cultural exchange, leisure, and respite.
 
 
The Parade Ground is surrounded on each side by several of the site’s most historic buildings, resulting in a formal open space with generous room for public recreation, events, direct access to restaurant and retail attractions, as well as smaller-scale cultural and educational spaces. The Prison Yard will be subtly transformed from a rough and forbidding area to a new open public space dedicated to cultural programming. Adding new art and cultural program is one of the key strategies to opening up and activating the former Prison Yard. Two new volumes that float tightly above the surrounding granite walls are conceived as distinctive but carefully inserted elements within the fabric of existing buildings.
 
 
By cantilevering above the walls and keeping a minimum distance to the adjacent structures, the buildable floor area is maximized while staying within the zoning envelope and at the same time creating protective offsets from the surrounding historical buildings. As an architectural expression, it also clearly distinguishes the new buildings from the site’s historic buildings. Gathered mainly at the Lower Courtyard, the former police buildings sit proudly on either street level or on top of the granite walls, making their authority and presence in the city known. The prison buildings, on the other hand, are located behind the walls, and have historically been separated from public access and view for obvious reasons of safety and security.
 
 
The new building volumes copy neither of the historical conditions but instead create a new relationship to the site context by hovering just above the wall. By raising the volumes, new public and circulation spaces are created below, resulting in generous protected places for gathering and activity, and establishing a new East-West pedestrian connection from Arbuthnot Road to Old Bailey Street. At the same time, the buildings become new markers at the two ends of the compound, bringing attention to a formerly closed-off part of the city. The design of Old Bailey Wing, located at the southwest portion of the site, is developed in close relation to the adaptive reuse of the F Hall. New connections will be created between the two buildings.
 
 
Together, they will house contemporary art functions. The courtyard entrance of the Old Bailey Wing is defined by the building’s volume hovering above the historic revetment wall. This entrance area is protected from rain and sun and acts as the circulation hub and foyer to both the F Hall and Old Bailey Wing. The F Hall will be a versatile gallery space for art exhibition or other special events. Much of the original architecture with its traces from the buildings’ past use are kept and preserved. In contrast, the adjacent Old Bailey Wing will feature large column-free exhibition spaces with maximum flexibility. Skylights in the roof will provide natural daylight into the top gallery space.
 
 
The second floor is dedicated to a restaurant with an outdoor terrace overlooking the rich and textured roofscape of the entire compound embedded in the cityscape. Sitting as a new marker on the southeast corner of the CPS site is the new Arbuthnot Wing. The volume similarly hovers above the revetment wall along Arbuthnot Road, creating a covered public outdoor gathering, cinema and performance space with a large stair whose steps may be used for informal seating. On either side of the Arbuthnot Wing are old prison buildings, D Hall and E Hall, forming interior elevations for this unique outdoor venue.
 
 
The height restriction is also fully taken advantage of, resulting in two more generous program spaces above: an 8m height multipurpose space with an accessible technical grid ceiling, and a mechanical plant room that houses cooling towers and equipment serving the entire site. Both new buildings are clad with a cast aluminum fa?ade unit system that is referencing, in terms of scale and proportion, the existing granite block elements of the characteristic bordering revetment wall surrounding the entire site, thus establishing a certain contextual relationship.
 
 
The use of 100% recycled aluminum as a material provides a distinctive architectural expression and materiality, setting the new buildings apart as new insertions amongst the collection of historical masonry blocks, and at the same time addresses issues such as structural support, sun shading, and rain protection in Hong Kong’s subtropical climate. The specific porosity, patterning, and expression of the fa?ade unit are informed by the functional and environmental requirements of the uses within. The materiality of the cast aluminum units will have a distinctive roughness and texture breaking down the fa?ade surface, which helps to reduce the reflectivity and glare during the daytime. At night, light emitted from the building will be partially screened by the fa?ade units, expressing the life of activities within but without creating light pollution.?
 





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