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编辑导读:建筑师充分考虑了墨脱独特的气候地貌特征,采用当地材料、当地的建造方式,融入了传统文化元素,实现了当代建筑的地域性表达。起伏曲折的屋顶与峡谷山体走势相呼应,同时利于排水。(经典值评价:6.6)
项目概况:
建筑设计:EID Architecture
地点:西藏,墨脱县(Medog, Tibet, China)
主持建筑师:姜平(Ping Jiang, AIA)
建筑面积:1854.0 m2
完工时间:2018
照片版权:CreatAR Image 
 
项目简介:
墨脱气象中心位于中国西藏林芝境内雅鲁藏布江的大拐弯处,基地周边群山环绕,景色壮丽,半山的峡谷之中,可远眺南迦巴瓦峰,周边景观植被茂盛,蕴含原生态的朴素之美。
 
墨脱具有独特的气候地貌特征,属亚热带雨林气候,降水量充沛,全年潮湿多雨。这里平均海拔只有1200米,最低处甚至仅115米。作为中国境内最后一个通达公路的县城,其道路状况十分恶劣,单程调研考察需要花费大概一周的时间。遥远的地理位置为设计与建造带来极大的挑战。
 
墨脱气象中心的建造属援藏类项目,设计初衷是通过远程介入的方式(意指在基地到访次数有限以及外籍主持建筑师无法到达墨脱的特殊条件下 ),为当地的气象局提供一个复合事业机构办公空间及员工宿舍的公共服务类建筑,充分利用在地的建造方式、材料与工艺,实现当代建筑的地域性表达。
 
由于周边建筑对项目基地形成独特的围合之势,该设计总体布局采用了围合的格局,充分回应所处位置的景观与环境关系。院落的回廊顺应地域性气候,最大化景观视线的同时,结合当地居民对工作与生活的使用需求,形成一个相对内聚的院落空间。
 
屋顶通过有序的曲折变化使建筑形态与对面的峡谷山体走势相呼应,同时充分考虑到在降雨量较大的时期迅速进行建筑排水。底层局部采用架空的设计手法,承袭当地杆栏式建筑特色,高低错落的隙间有效促进自然通风,同时丰富立面形态。
 
建筑师在实际的建造实践过程中发现,受限于当地建筑材料选择与施工建造技术的严重匮乏,大型建筑机械进出困难,无疑为实际的建筑营造带来严峻的阻碍,建造难度远远超出预期。远程的网络通讯与实时沟通软件成为建筑设计建造的主要方式。
 
这次远程介入的探索,从选择当地松木、黏土和石材开始,以最简单经济的方式进行现场施工,呈现质朴原初的砖混建筑结构建筑。
 
设计细节充分尊重当地民族文化特色,将门巴族、珞巴族传统文化元素与现代建筑语汇相融合,利用素朴的建筑语言表达毫无矫饰的建筑内涵。
 
该项目于2018年初竣工,目前已投入使用。这座建筑有效汲取当地的文化特质,具有独特的辨识度,荣获2018年亚太房产大奖中国区最佳公共服务建筑及2017意大利The Plan Award未来办公商务类建筑最终提名奖。



Architect of Record/M&E Consultant/Structural Engineer:Tibet Helin Architectural Design Co., Ltd.
Design Team:Sean Lu, Tina Fang, Yun Gong, Sean Zhong
 
 
 
Text description provided by the architects. The Medog Meteorological Center (MMC) is located along the river bend area of Yarlung Tsangpo River in Nyingchi prefecture of Tibet. Within canyons, surrounded by mountain ranges and dense forests, the project site captures prominent view of the Namcha Barwa in the distance, while integrating with the well-preserved natural surroundings.
 
 
Design Challenges
Although Medog is located on the Tibetan plateau, its altitude surprisingly ranges from merely 115m to 1200m maximum high, which comes with a tropical rainforest climate that causes high annual rainfalls for the area. The unique geomorphic features and climate not only bring Medog all-year-long rainy and humid seasons, but more importantly, results in the architectural challenges of accommodating water drainage and barrier systems that help avoid water damages for the building.??
 
 
As being one of the last counties to be reached by the highway systems in China, Medog is known as a primordial town that is hidden within the southern mountain range of Tibet, isolated from the rest of the world, both socially and culturally. Due to the lack of fully developed transportation and rural location of Medog, the construction processes of the Meteorological Center became significantly challenging, in terms of aspects as undeveloped construction skills and techniques, limited numbers of heavy machinery, small selection of building materials and etc.
 
 
Remote Intervention
Due to this area being strictly prohibited for foreigners to visit, the architect took it as a great design opportunity, utilizing “remote intervention” as the communication method, collaborating with the local construction team to accomplish the project. The design intends to reinvent the existing site into a multifunctional environment that accommodates both working and living uses for the new meteorological center; at the same time, achieving the development of a vernacular heritage by adapting it to contemporary architectural language.
 
 
“Breathable Architecture”
Consisting of the administrative office and staff dormitory, the new meteorological center is conceived as enclosed courtyard, serving as a hybrid building for the local meteorological bureau responding to occupants’ daily routine. The centralized organizational system accommodates different functional needs while ensuring spatial privacy.
 
 
The undulating roof system that mimics the movements of rolling hills, borrows design elements from the natural surroundings, while responding to the climate need of providing drainage system. By maintaining the natural rhythm on the architectural forms, the building blends into the context without drawing attention to itself, establishing a respectful dialogue with the existing, providing a harmonious environment for better serving the community.
 
 
Elevated ground level that is inherited from the vernacular architecture optimizes the pedestrian experience on the site, while at the same time, facilitating the natural ventilation system of the building. A rhythmic fa?ade is created by carefully placed window elements on the building envelope. As the building is designed to be an integration of living and working space, the use of solid and void volumes optimizes the quality of natural views through responding to the occupants’ living-patterns during the day.
 
 
Reinterpretation of the Vernacular
Based on the early site study, the architect learned from the local traditional architecture to accommodate environmental and cultural needs of Medog area: using local pinewood and prefabricated in situ to reduce construction cost, elevating the ground floor, providing masonry structural supports, and applying sloped roof system to overcome issues in rainy seasons. The building fa?ade also features a hand-craft stucco pattern, adapting to the texture and enriching its local characteristics.
 
 
The design and materiality pay tribute to the local ethnic culture, blending traditional Moinba and Lhoba architecture with modern architectural elements, creating a contemporary building sensitive to local culture and tectonic tradition.
 
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