总建筑面积： 约 3000m²
综合上述面对的状况与课题，本案所提出的设计策略是: 以建筑的单元化与系统化来处理有关机能与效能的课题，以空间的手法加低技术策略来回应有关可持续的议题，以表皮界面空间的塑造来处理与周遭环境的关系及建筑优化的课题。而主要的设计概念是: 一个漂浮的九宫格立方盒子 / 一个由单一空间单元系统所构成，界面模糊、形式感弱，但具美感、自明性强的，实中有虚的立方盒子。
The new building volume is framed on three sides by the existing courtyard. To dissolve the sense of constriction of the space and obfuscate distance, its façades are covered with punched steel plates. To further increase the apparent lightness of the building and veil its pressure on the ground, this stilt building is sunken a half-floor below grade and the lowered floor enclosed with glass recessed two meters at the east and west. The building\'s façades are evenly divided into 3×3 grids and further divided by panels. This homogeneity contrasts with the chaotic existing environment. The new building does not respond formally to the old façades. Instead, the new facades create a gauze-like filter between the two. From the inside, the old façades become blurred and the conflict between new and old is weakened. The building’s interior space conforms to the logic of the façade. The atrium at the center of the cube facilitates ventilation and improves lighting.
This project was initiated because a long-term shortage of space at the school and the increasing demand on existing spaces in recent years. The two major difficulties were to obtain land and to raise funds for the project. Finally, the new building had to be established within the only vacant space — a small courtyard space surrounded by the existing buildings of the School of Architecture. The project depends on sponsorship by the Foundation and on Tsinghua alumni for funding. Construction began after getting barely enough to cover the budget.
2 Thinking of Design
2.1 Architectural Attitudes
Because of its historical background, the old building of the School of Architecture attached more importance to form and style than to the essence and experience of space. The new building for the School of Architecture should not only be able to handle the encountered issues and meet the functional requirements, but also convey a clear attitude — that space and form should not be simply determined by style, but respond to the purpose of the building and the issues it faces.
Given the objectives, conditions and the situation of the new building, the main issues this project faces are to work within very tight constraints to create space efficiency, a developed and recognizable architectural attitude, consistency, a coherent image and gradients of public and private spaces.
2.2.1 Space Efficiency
The conditions and requirements of the project, which include the highly constrained building site, demand a highly efficient use of space in order to meet the building\'s program requirements and effectively control construction costs.
2.2.2 Consistency and Distinguishability
Surrounded by existing buildings, the building will be highly visible and intimately connected to the other parts of the school. The new architectural form should be coordinated with the style of the existing buildings but it should also be distinguishable from them. Simply speaking, it is necessary to create an adjacent relationship that supports connection and independence, but not excessive interference.
Sustainability has always been a concern of the architect and it is a basic issue the building must be required to face. Built inside the atrium space — surrounded by the "four-faced wall," — this project has a relatively difficult base condition. The project attempts to introduce natural light and to guide the natural flow of air by means of spatial arrangement, so as to shape a comfortable environment without excessive energy consumption.
For a school building, especially the building of the School of Architecture that has a strong communication requirement, it is essential to create public space that inspires participation, communication, and a host of activities. Implementing and strengthening the public aspects of the building is a critical part of the design.
Based on the conditions and issues mentioned above, the proposed design strategy is to deal with issues related to function and efficiency through the unitization and systematization of the architecture, to influence issues concerning sustainability by means of the arrangement of space and low technology strategies, and to handle the issues regarding the relationship between the architecture and the surroundings, as well as architectural optimization of aesthetics by creating a screen interface on the facade.
The main design concept is: a floating 3×3 grids covered (jiugongge) cubic box, built of a solid and void system of spatial units — a fuzzy interface and weak form, with aesthetic sense and distinguishable features.
2.3.1 Three-Dimensional Space Module System
The 7.5m×7.5m×7.5m cubic space is the most important unit size from which to create the spatial module system as it is based on the original settings for a studio of 30 students. From this unit, the entire building volume — the 22.5m×22.5m×22.5m cubic box — is piled up. This systematic structure decreases the complexity and increases the efficiency of the construction process. As a consequence, it can also effectively reduce the project cost.
The facade as screen will work as a filter. It will have a transitional and softening effect, blurring and filtering the dissonances between old and new but not blocking the transmission of light.
It is not easy for the building volume, which is composed of a single element, to have a strong conflict with other styles due to its simple form. Its three-dimensional trellis surface will give the building a non-invasive distinguishability and a sense of presence. We used a bright yellow metal framework, obviously different from the environment, to define the entrance of the new building and symbolize the independent personality of the new building. Using all these strategies and more, we believe we can transform "the backyard to the front yard" — and convert what was originally a negative situation into a positive one.
The surface space that is composed of 30-degree-angle lattice panels is capable of sun-shading and reducing energy consumption. In addition, it helps to offer a moderate visual filtering buffer for the use of the internal space, so as to maintain certain privacy and to eliminate the interference caused by the close spacing. On the other hand, it also helps to integrate the equipment spaces, such as the outdoor unit of air conditioning, which maintains the integrity of a building.
2.3.3 Shaping of Horizontal and Vertical Open Spaces
The building is a 22.5m × 22.5m × 22.5m cube, in order to introduce natural light and to facilitate the natural flow of air. The 3×3 grid (jiugongge) building cube is moderately raised to create an open space at the lower layer and generate a horizontal flow of air. The central unit of the 3×3 grid (jiugongge) spatial system is pulled out to form an vertical open box that will introduce natural light to every floor and provide a stack for the circulation of air up through the building. The partition doors of each floor are equipped with airflow devices that will allow the air in the rooms to naturally flow to the atrium. We hope to shape an energy-saving and comfortable internal environment.
As a new building, this project is not only expected to meet functional demands but also to redefine the original space and use patterns of the school. It will create more opportunities for learning and communication and increase students\' enthusiasm and creativity just the way and inspired and thoughtfully designed educational space should. □
WANG Lu: Built in 1990s, the old building of the School of Architecture, Tsinghua University has also been partly used by other departments. Therefore, teachers of the School of Architecture have to cultivate students in this half part of their own School\'s building.
While designing the new building, LI Xiaodong was faced with two issues: how to make a maximum use of the limited land area to meet the spatial demand for teaching activities, and how to deal with the shortage of money?
Despite the complex items and resources, LI\'s designs often come straight to one or two issues. Just like his other designs, the design for the new building of the School of Architecture focuses on function and efficiency by virtue of single unit system, which is like the way that he plays chess, leaving a distinctive space trajectory within the grids.
Besides teaching, he had to refine the design for the new building over and over again and coordinate various relevant views over a very long time. What made it even bitter is that he had to call on entrepreneurs and friends for funds. Thanks to LI, the completed new building of the School of Architecture has been endowed with a new connotation by making a larger possible space out of the small land area.