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项目概况:
建筑设计:城村架构
地点:陕西省渭南市石家村
建设周期:2009. 04 –2012. 03
使用面积:380平方米
造价:$ 53,400
单位造价: $ 140/m2
建筑用途:村民住宅
获奖概况:2014维纳博艮筑奖 居住奖(Category Winner in Residential Use)
用砖类型:面砖,泥砖/Facing bricks, mud bricks
照片版权:城村架构

项目综述:
此项目是针对中国北部夯土房屋的一个设计原型。基于中国争取在三十年内将现有3.5亿农村人口城镇化,这目标让农村房屋产生翻天覆地的变化。可是,这正正导致传统农宅被摒弃和拆除,取而代之的是现代化新型住宅。这项目尝试透过结合现代设计和传统农村生活,提供一个可行的另类模式。作为一个示范项目,这农宅原型能够改变农民对中国传统庭院式住宅固有的成见。这项目致力提倡更富持续性的设计理念,结合了夯土、沼气、雨水收集、芦苇床净化系统等技术。项目成果就是一个把传统科技融入现代农村生活中的生态农宅。

项目简介:
林君翰副教授是香港大学建筑学院城村架构工作组的创始人之一。2006年,他开始带领他的学生在陕西西安附近的石家村进行类型学调研。这一研究的背景正是中国迅猛的城市化浪潮,乡村的成熟劳动力在这一过程中大量外流。当地建筑由于丧失了传统,越来越依赖外来的建筑包工。林君翰的目标就是为传统的中国合院住宅创造一种可持续的现代原型。石家村住宅在他眼中就是利用当地材料和做法在传统与现代之间架起的桥梁。他说:“这栋住宅是现代乡土建筑研究的成果,代表了弘扬中国乡土建筑的积极尝试。”

作为乡村发展的基础,这个原型能够让住户亲自参与建造,以满足具体要求。林君翰说:“其中的理念就是避免使用创新材料,而是用最普通的材料在做法上进行创新。比如,这里就是在用砖浇注混凝土柱。因为砖是乡镇最常见的材料,村民很容易得到它,所以就能够自己修理住宅。”

“我们的住宅原型通过创造新的复合结构将传统与现代建造技术熔于一炉,” 林君翰解释道。混凝土支柱和屋顶让12m×32m的村宅具备抗震能力。混凝土内填充了粘土砖,成为大陆气候的保温层。建筑外围是四面连续的透空砖墙,能在遮挡阳光的同时保证通风。在中国,阳台和窗洞通常会用砖图案包围,但用在整座建筑上的却很少见。在这里,它不但有防泥的效果,还让这座建筑在周围的景观中显现出一种抽象化的特征。屋顶的起伏则与远方的山峦遥相呼应。

可由踏步下到内院的屋顶有多种用途:收集雨水、晾晒食物、进行旱作,甚至还有欣赏风景的休息座位。南北立面上分别是次入口和主入口。在中国的乡村,大部分社交和劳作都是在内院中进行的。四季住宅的4个内院与周围的房间相互呼应,而每个内院又自成一体。基本平面中除了两个大院以外,在中部的生活区旁边还有两个小院。从功能上看,小院一个是用来洗晾衣物的,另一个是用于玉米和种子的旱作的。最后一个内院在北侧,是养猪的。地下沼气池提供做饭所需的能源。中部房间火炉的废气通过中国传统的炕道后从烟囱中排出。(尚晋 译)

评委评语
埃娃·库雷沃维奇(波兰):建筑师的设计以及最后在当地社区大力支持下建成的作品,无不体现出该地区中国住宅的典型布局。它收集了雨水等可再生资源,使屋顶在获得优美造型的同时满足了多种功能。双层砖的使用更是独具匠心。第一层保温的泥砖是在现场用特殊的机器制成的。第二层的面砖是当地现成的。这种奇特的用砖手法完全不需要其他保温材料。它不仅是一个充满智慧的项目,更体现出中国设计的优雅与完美。(尚晋 译)

评论
邵韦平:这是一个“新”设计出来的“旧”房子,它的“新”来自于对乡村建筑的当代性探索,清晰的建造逻辑、细致的材料组织和生态系统的营造都是关于建筑本体的思考;而它的“旧”来自于建造的结果,随手制作出来的乡土感确实表达了关中农村不拘小节的天性。这两种态度的距离是如此之大,所以产生的结果是独一无二又耐人寻味的。

张雷: 这是一个慈善基金会捐助的位于西安附近石家村的实验性项目,实验的内容包括了建筑师对乡土环境下现代合院住宅原型的探索,也包括了不少生态方面的考虑。砖是四季宅形态解读中决定性的视觉要素,10m×30m镂空的现代主义方盒子由花格砖墙以非传统的超大尺度所定义,将墙里面丰富的院落和生态内容强有力地统合起来,同时也有效地保护了内部的土胚砖隔墙。


John Lin is an adjunct professor and co-founder of the working group Rural Urban Framework (RUF) at the University of Hong Kong\'s Faculty of Architecture. In 2006, Lin began conducting typological surveys with his students in Shijia village, near Xi\'an in Shaanxi province. The studies were prompted by China\'s continuing urban flight, which has left the countryside with a lack of skilled labour, an erosion of its building traditions and an increased reliance on external building contractors. John Lin\'s aim was to develop a modern and sustainable prototype of a traditional Chinese courtyard house. The "Shijia Village Houses", according to Lin, are meant to bridge the gap between the traditional and the modern and to make use of the existing knowledge of local materials and processes. The house, Lin says, "is a result of investigation into the modern village vernacular and represents an architectural attempt to consciously evolve vernacular house construction in China."

As a basis for village development, the prototype was to be adaptable to the specific requirements of the residents, to offer them the possibility of building with their own hands. John Lin: "The idea is not to use advanced, innovative materials but instead to innovate the way most common material is used – brick in this case – for example by using bricks to cast concrete columns. As brick is widely available in towns and villages, villagers will have no difficulty sourcing it and therefore are able to repair the house on their own."

"Our house prototype integrates both traditional and modern building techniques by inventing a new kind of hybrid structure," explains Lin. The supports and the roof are of concrete, making the 12-by-32-metre village house earthquake-resistant. The concrete is combined with an infill of clay bricks, which serve as an insulating layer in this continental climate. The building shell consists of a continuous perforated brick screen over all four exterior walls to keep the sun out while simultaneously letting air circulate. In China, bricks are often used in patterns to enclose balconies or window openings; a perforated facade around an entire building, however, is unusual. Here, it protects the house from mud, but it also lends the edifice a kind of abstract quality within the surrounding landscape. The movement of the roof echoes the sweep of the mountains in the background.

The multifunctional roof, which leads down in steps to one of the courtyards, allows the collection of rainwater, offers space for the drying of foodstuffs and for dry cultivation, and features a seating area in which to relax with a view of the landscape. The perpendicular sides feature a main entrance in the north and a side entrance in the south. In the rural regions of China, most social and work activities take place around an inner courtyard. The four courtyards of the "house for all seasons" are arranged in a way that lets them engage in a dialogue with the rooms adjoining them, with every courtyard in turn forming a unique space. In addition to the two large courtyards, the basic typological plan features two smaller inner courtyards located at the long sides of the central living area. Functionally, one of those two small courtyards is meant for the washing and hanging of laundry, while the second is designed for dry cultivation of goods such as maize and seeds. The last courtyard, on the north side, is for pig farming. A subterranean biogas plant supplies energy for cooking. The exhaust from the central house stove is conducted in pipes under the kang, the traditional Chinese bed-stove, before escaping from the chimney.□

Jury Statement
Ewa Kurylowicz (Poland): What the architects did, and what was later constructed with significant input from the local society, is an implementation of the typical layout of the Chinese house from that area. It gathers renewable resources, such as collecting water on the roof, making the roof very sculptural and multifunctional. The bricks are used in an innovative way and are double-layered. The first layer is an infill for insulation. These are the mud bricks made in situ with the use of a special machine. The other layer, for the exterior finish, is made of bricks that in this area of China are readily available. It is a very interesting and unique use of bricks, which doesn\'t call for the use of any other insulation materials. It\'s not only a very wise project, but also a graceful and beautiful one.

Comments
SHAO Weiping: This is an "old" house created by a "new" design. The house\'s "new" comes from the application of modernism in rural architecture, a clear and logical construction rationale, meticulous organization of materials, and the creation of a new ecosystem. Meanwhile, its "old" is represented in the outcome of its construction. The house\'s craftsmanship represents a spontaneously created earthiness, indicative of the "sloppy" nature of the central Chinese countryside. These two attitudes of "old" and "new" are very far apart; therefore the result of the two coming together is unique and intriguing.

ZHANG Lei: It is an experimental project funded by a Luke Him Sau Charitable Trust in Shijiacun near Xi\'an. The major concepts include the architects\' exploration of the generation of modern courtyard architecture in rural settings and concerns for ecological issues. Brick is the determinant visual element in looking at houses for all seasons. The 10m by 30m modern box is defined by unusually large hollow brick walls, the inclusion of rich environmental contents inside within the walls and a mud brick partition wall for protection.
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