建设周期：2009. 04 –2012. 03
单位造价： $ 140/m2
筑奖 居住奖（Category Winner in Residential Use）
用砖类型：面砖，泥砖/Facing bricks, mud bricks
John Lin is an adjunct professor and co-founder of the working group Rural Urban Framework (RUF) at the University of Hong Kong\'s Faculty of Architecture. In 2006, Lin began conducting typological surveys with his students in Shijia village, near Xi\'an in Shaanxi province. The studies were prompted by China\'s continuing urban flight, which has left the countryside with a lack of skilled labour, an erosion of its building traditions and an increased reliance on external building contractors. John Lin\'s aim was to develop a modern and sustainable prototype of a traditional Chinese courtyard house. The "Shijia Village Houses", according to Lin, are meant to bridge the gap between the traditional and the modern and to make use of the existing knowledge of local materials and processes. The house, Lin says, "is a result of investigation into the modern village vernacular and represents an architectural attempt to consciously evolve vernacular house construction in China."
As a basis for village development, the prototype was to be adaptable to the specific requirements of the residents, to offer them the possibility of building with their own hands. John Lin: "The idea is not to use advanced, innovative materials but instead to innovate the way most common material is used – brick in this case – for example by using bricks to cast concrete columns. As brick is widely available in towns and villages, villagers will have no difficulty sourcing it and therefore are able to repair the house on their own."
"Our house prototype integrates both traditional and modern building techniques by inventing a new kind of hybrid structure," explains Lin. The supports and the roof are of concrete, making the 12-by-32-metre village house earthquake-resistant. The concrete is combined with an infill of clay bricks, which serve as an insulating layer in this continental climate. The building shell consists of a continuous perforated brick screen over all four exterior walls to keep the sun out while simultaneously letting air circulate. In China, bricks are often used in patterns to enclose balconies or window openings; a perforated facade around an entire building, however, is unusual. Here, it protects the house from mud, but it also lends the edifice a kind of abstract quality within the surrounding landscape. The movement of the roof echoes the sweep of the mountains in the background.
The multifunctional roof, which leads down in steps to one of the courtyards, allows the collection of rainwater, offers space for the drying of foodstuffs and for dry cultivation, and features a seating area in which to relax with a view of the landscape. The perpendicular sides feature a main entrance in the north and a side entrance in the south. In the rural regions of China, most social and work activities take place around an inner courtyard. The four courtyards of the "house for all seasons" are arranged in a way that lets them engage in a dialogue with the rooms adjoining them, with every courtyard in turn forming a unique space. In addition to the two large courtyards, the basic typological plan features two smaller inner courtyards located at the long sides of the central living area. Functionally, one of those two small courtyards is meant for the washing and hanging of laundry, while the second is designed for dry cultivation of goods such as maize and seeds. The last courtyard, on the north side, is for pig farming. A subterranean biogas plant supplies energy for cooking. The exhaust from the central house stove is conducted in pipes under the kang, the traditional Chinese bed-stove, before escaping from the chimney.□
Ewa Kurylowicz (Poland): What the architects did, and what was later constructed with significant input from the local society, is an implementation of the typical layout of the Chinese house from that area. It gathers renewable resources, such as collecting water on the roof, making the roof very sculptural and multifunctional. The bricks are used in an innovative way and are double-layered. The first layer is an infill for insulation. These are the mud bricks made in situ with the use of a special machine. The other layer, for the exterior finish, is made of bricks that in this area of China are readily available. It is a very interesting and unique use of bricks, which doesn\'t call for the use of any other insulation materials. It\'s not only a very wise project, but also a graceful and beautiful one.
SHAO Weiping: This is an "old" house created by a "new" design. The house\'s "new" comes from the application of modernism in rural architecture, a clear and logical construction rationale, meticulous organization of materials, and the creation of a new ecosystem. Meanwhile, its "old" is represented in the outcome of its construction. The house\'s craftsmanship represents a spontaneously created earthiness, indicative of the "sloppy" nature of the central Chinese countryside. These two attitudes of "old" and "new" are very far apart; therefore the result of the two coming together is unique and intriguing.
ZHANG Lei: It is an experimental project funded by a Luke Him Sau Charitable Trust in Shijiacun near Xi\'an. The major concepts include the architects\' exploration of the generation of modern courtyard architecture in rural settings and concerns for ecological issues. Brick is the determinant visual element in looking at houses for all seasons. The 10m by 30m modern box is defined by unusually large hollow brick walls, the inclusion of rich environmental contents inside within the walls and a mud brick partition wall for protection.