加纳北部某职业学校活动中心(MUDcafeteria )- Anna Schweiger + Jaap Willemsen

编辑导读:非洲职业学校里的低造价活动中心,采用了模块化,同时外墙采用了夯土墙,地域化。(经典值评价:6.5)
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项目概况:
建筑设计:Anna Schweiger, Jaap Willemsen
地点:加纳(Tamale - Yendi Rd, Sang, Ghana)
建筑面积:180.0 m2
完工时间:2017
 
项目简介:
来自建筑师的介绍。MUDcafeteria 是加纳北部一座职业学校的中心。它由维也纳大学的学生和当地社区居民于2017年夏天建造。施工在12周之后以20000欧元的预算完成。建造这样一座同时作为就餐场所和社交中心的食堂十分重要。学生们可以在舒适的室内环境中休息和交流,如果需要,它也可以用于当地社区的小型活动。
 
设计基于一个可以不断重复的模块化系统。所用模块为独立支撑结构,可以实现建筑的连续扩建。平面经过栅格化和标准化,由此可以仅通过两种不同的模板系统和一种钢混合梁来完成施工。我们尝试主要使用当地的可持续材料,并仅在承重构件和暴露在外的构件中使用水泥以减少其使用。由于所在地区的持续高温,保持建筑凉爽十分必要。为了创造舒适的内部环境,我们根据两个层次的原则设计了建筑。包围建筑的有顶的外部区域保护内部区域免受雨水侵袭和阳光直射。
 
外墙由45cm厚的夯土构成(无水泥),作为热量缓冲区发挥作用,使白天内部环境保持稳定。墙中泥土储存热量并调节湿度和噪音。另外,它耐火且能够固定空气污染物。由于相连的“风/光模块”,建筑通风良好,且间接的自然光线可以进入建筑的内层。为了加强自然冷却效果,食堂的主轴线与风向垂直。屋面由波纹金属板制成,是降雨丰富的当地地区的常见做法。为了减少湿季的噪音和屋面散热,当地制造的草垫作为背后通风的子结构悬挂在屋面下。通过这样的方式,室内甚至可以在最热的天气里保持相对凉爽。
 
建筑由三个独立的部分组成。最大的部分是一个多功能房间,目前用作教室。较小的房间中有一个工作台面,通过服务窗口与中央半开放空间相连接。在建筑周边创造了从较大的开放空间到更为私密的空间等不同的区域。出挑的屋檐,柱子(有水泥的夯土)之间的休息龛位以及正面的座椅和种植池构成了一个就餐,社交和休憩的室外空间。由剩余木材和当地产的绳子制成的格栅提供了遮阳,并进一步的定义了前门廊区域。另外的剩余木材用来制作一些家具,比如厨房的台面。烹饪设备和雨水池位于建筑背后。

Architects:Anna Schweiger, Jaap Willemsen 
 
Location:Tamale - Yendi Rd, Sang, Ghana 
 
Area:180.0 m2 
 
Project Year:2017 
 
Project-Partner:NKA-Foundation 
 
Competitions:Participation in the 4th Earth Architecture Competition 
 
Total Costs:19,000 € 
 
Construction Time:Approx. 12 weeks (9th of July till 2nd of October) 


Text description provided by the architects. The MUDcafeteria is the center of a vocational school in the north of Ghana. It was built in summer 2017 by students of the TU Vienna together with locals from the local community. The construction was finished after 12 weeks with a budget set at 20.000€. It was important for us to build the cafeteria not only as a place to eat but also as a center for social gatherings. A place where pupils have the opportunity to relax and socialize in a comfortable indoor climate. If needed, the building can also be used by the local community for small events.
 
 
 
The design is based on a modular system which can be repeated continuously. The modules are independent supporting structures, which allow for successive extensions of the building. The plan was rasterized and standardized, so that construction was possible using only two different ‘formwork-systems’ and one type of steel composite-beam. We have tried to use mainly local sustainable materials and reduce the use of cement by only using it for the load-bearing or weather-exposed elements. Due to the constantly high temperatures in the region, it is essential to keep the building cool. In order to create a comfortable inside climate, we planned the structure according to a two-layer principle. The sheltered outside area surrounding the structure protects the inner area from rain and direct sunlight.
 
 
 
The outside walls, which consist of 45 cm rammed earth (without cement), function as a heat buffer, stabilizing the inside climate during the day. The mud in the walls stores heats and regulates moisture and sound. Moreover, it binds air pollutants and is fire-resistant. Because of the connecting “wind/light modules,” the building is well ventilated and the indirect natural light reaches the inner layer of the building. To increase the natural cooling effect, the cafeteria’s main axes are set at a right angle to the wind. The roof is made of corrugated metal, common within this region because of the heavy rainfalls. For noise reduction during the wet season and to reduce heat emissions from the roof, locally produced straw mats were hung to serve as a back-ventilated sub-structure. This way, the inside remains relatively cool, even on the hottest days.
 
 
 
The building consists of three independent sections. The biggest section, a multi-purpose room, will be used as a classroom for now. In the smaller room, there is a counter with a serving hatch connected to the central, semi-outdoor space. Different zones were created around the building, from bigger open ones to more private areas. The projected roof, the sitting niches between the columns (rammed earth with cement), as well as the frontal seating and plant-bed elements, form an outdoor space for eating, socializing and retreating. The blinds, which were made from leftover construction wood and locally produced rope, provide shade and additionally define the front porch area. Other leftover construction wood was used to build some furniture such as the kitchen counter. The cooking element and the rainwater tank are situated behind the building.
 





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