美国西雅图 Mark 大厦(The Mark )- ZGF Architects

编辑导读:场地内有一座有权拆除的历史教堂,但主动保留了下来。设计上围绕着历史与现代,底层平面被占为了最大化商业面积而进行的悬挑,建筑由此形成了多面体的立面。(经典值评价:7.5)
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项目概况:
建筑设计:ZGF Architects
地点:美国,西雅图(Seattle, Washington, United States)
建筑面积:69677.2 平方米(750000.0 ft2 )
完工时间:2018
照片版权:Connie Zhou, Lara Swimmer
 
项目简介:
来自建筑师的介绍。Mark 大厦位于美国西雅图市的市中心,它是一栋全新的商业办公大楼和酒店。建筑的原场地中有一栋历史悠久的教堂,它由西雅图市的创始人 Arthur Denny 下令建造,见证了整个城市的发展历程。我们的客户有权拆除这座教堂而获取更大的建筑面积,但却选择保留该教堂。因此,我们的设计方案调整了主体建筑的占地面积,以保护这座历史悠久的教堂。这个方案既让老教堂融入了新的环境,也让这片街区变得更具活力。
 
这个方案将对原教堂进行整修,使其能在未来继续为该社区服务。这样就保存了该街区的历史特征,并于场地旁的一栋历史悠久的 Rainer 俱乐部(Rainer Club)相互呼应。
 
我们分别对几个设计方案进行了评估,主要考察了方案的建筑形式、结构和功能,以及新建部分与原有教堂的关系。从而得出三种可行的方案:包括弧形,倾斜和多面的立面设计方案。我们最终选择了多面立面的这一设计,然后对整体方案进行了优化,以使建筑的高度和其配置能符合业主的需求,并使其成为西雅图市中心天际线里的另一个标志。
 
我们选定的这一方案,在尽量减少横向元素的前提下,增加整栋大厦的垂直感,从而吸引人们的视线向上。建筑外观的每个面之间也有细微多样的变化,这样一种柔和的表现方式,能避免在视觉上压倒教堂和Rainier俱乐部这两栋建筑的精致细节设计。
 
在这座城市历史悠久的建筑热潮中,高层建筑形成了其独具特色的建筑风格,即暴露的对角钢支撑结构,将建筑物的外立面做几何分割。这种多面立面的方案展示着建筑的结构系统,该系统可以减轻核心的负载,将重量转移到建筑外墙。因此,可以减少内部梁柱的搭建,从而消除了视觉障碍元素,并缩减了核心支撑结构的尺寸,有助于构造开放的楼层平面,从而最大化地利用楼层空间。这样的设计既满足了建筑的造型需求,也满足了整个场地的自然光照需求。
 
因为Mark大厦底层平面的面积仅有近1393平方米,所以需要在高楼层部分扩展平面面积,以最大化该商业大厦的租赁潜力。通过与Rainer俱乐部的协商,我们争取到了Rainer俱乐部建筑物上空的开发权。结果,大厦的中间部分延伸到了两栋历史建筑物的上空,西北角的悬挑部分足足伸出了有6米,然后再通过一系列三角形面向上逐渐收缩。
 
我们设计了一个玻璃盒子来连接 Mark 大厦和教堂。它们构成的这个集合体既代表着现代高层建筑的成就,也象征着西雅图历史建筑曾经的辉煌。因为经济危机的出现,导致该项目直到2014年才重新开工。2017年,随着建设接近完成,一家大型网络技术公司宣布将从2019年开始租赁 Mark 大厦所有近四万八千平方米的办公空间。

Design Architect/Architect of Record:ZGF Architects
The Sanctuary/Hotel and Restaurant Architect:Phillippe Stark
Historical Preservation Architect:Ron Wright & Associates

Construction Manager/General Contractor:JTM Construction
Structural Engineer:Arup USA
Civil Engineer/Shoring Design:Coughlin Porter Lundeen
Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing Engineers:Syska Hennessy Group, Inc., The Rushing Group, Auburn Mechanical, Cochran, Hermanson Company
Vertical Transportation:Edgett Williams Consulting Group
Lighting:The Lighting Design Alliance
Environmental:EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
Broker:JLL
Ownership:Daniels Real Estate, Stockbridge Real Estate

Text description provided by the architects. In the design of a new commercial office tower and hotel in a downtown Seattle development, the owner held the rights to demolish a historically-significant church on the site, allowing for the development of a larger, half-block footprint. The emotional, cultural and historic significance of that church – a facility commissioned by Arthur Denny, founding father of the city of Seattle – motivated the client and parishioners to seek alternatives. The architects pursued a smaller building footprint, one that would preserver the historic sanctuary, promote pedestrian-activation of the city block, encourage density and smart urbanization. The church’s preservation and its incorporation into the new development would also yield a more sustainable solution for the site.
 
 
 
This shared commitment and sensitivity to context allowed not only for the church to restored for future community use, but to maintain the character and history of the block, which also includes the historic Rainer Club building.
 
 
A number of schemes were initially evaluated for the ability to integrate form, structure, function and sensitivity to the historic sanctuary. The team narrowed the field to three possibilities including curved, canted and faceted facades. A faceted scheme was selected and further developed to optimize building height, configuration and efficient floor plates, while responding to the owner’s vision for an iconic addition to downtown Seattle’s skyline.
 
 
The faceted scheme, with fewer lateral elements configured at open angles, draws the eye upward, increasing the vertical emphasis of the Tower. This scheme also offers subtle variation in plane from facet to facet: a soft expression which avoids overpowering the delicate detail and scale of the sanctuary and Rainier Club.
 
 
Amid a historic building boom in the city, the high-rise is distinguished by the exposed diagonal steel braces that divide the building’s planes. This faceted scheme is part of a structural system that shifts the load away from the core and to the exterior walls, eliminating view-obstructing elements like internal columns, and reducing core size to create more floor-plate efficiency. This resulted in open, configurable floorplates. The slender tower, with its unique architectural articulation, maximizes daylight exposure to the entire site.
 
 
With just 15,000 square feet available on level one of The Mark, floor area needed to expand on subsequent floors to maximize leasing potential. Through a joint development agreement with the Rainier Club, ‘over-under’ property rights are utilized. As a result, the tower subtly slopes over the existing historic structures – with the lower northwest corner cantilevering over The Sanctuary by more than 20 feet – before tapering back gently through a sequence of triangulated building planes.
 
 
A glass connector serves as a unique enclosed a transition between The Mark and historic sanctuary. The Mark reflects both adjacent high-rises and the historic buildings at its base – paying homage to Seattle’s past and present. After being sidelined by the Great Recession, development resumed in 2014. In 2017, with construction nearly complete, a major network technology company announced it would be leasing all 516,000 square feet of The Mark’s available office space beginning in 2019.





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