比利时 Siesegem 火葬场(Crematorium Siesegem )- KAAN Architecten

编辑导读:这是一片深入记忆的安宁绿洲,建筑师在74米见方的平面上营造了安静克制,庄严平和、促进亲近的空间。可以说该建筑是现代主义的深刻表达,材料的选择,空间的次序,光影的构建,景观的融合……是简洁里的丰富,不会乏味。(经典值评价:7.6)
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项目概况:
建筑设计:KAAN Architecten
地点:比利时(Merestraat 169, 9300 Aalst, Belgium)
建筑面积:5000.0 m2
完工时间:2018
照片版权:Sebastian van Damme, Simone Bossi
 
项目简介:
Siesegem火葬场坐落在比利时城市Aalst西环路边上的郊区中。由景观建筑师Erik Dhont设计的树木和灌木丛沿着74米x74米用地的边缘围绕着中间的火葬场。宁静的气息包裹着整个空间,从Blauwenberg路上的门口进入,眼前稍见起伏的浅绿山丘会令来者不自觉放慢脚步。在火葬场的北边,有一个用来储存雨水的蓄水池子,而附近的小山则被作为逝者的安息地。为了使参加追悼仪式的逝者家属免受打扰,并且尊重他们的隐私,场地的最东端还配备了一条完全隐藏在视线之外的灵车专用通道。
 
与建筑相随的是一个空间上的转变:从繁忙的外部世界转换到安静克制,带有象征意义的室内空间。位于建筑西南角的露台是一个过渡区,用于欢迎来者并把他们引入室内。考虑到火葬场典型的复杂运作流程,KAAN设计团队为此设计了一个能够自我表达,并且在使用过程中显得自然不做作的建筑。
 
进入火葬场后,一系列的空间塑造了来者的感官体验,同时避免了空间混淆感的产生。从地板直抵天花板的窗户高达6.4米,不但为室内带来了充足温暖的日光,同时也为空间增添了宽阔感。从一个大型的混凝土顶棚延伸而入就是面积宽敞的大厅,接待台就在眼前。接待厅两边的大窗面向一个景观花园,并向室内注入了足够的光线。同时,接待厅里还有一条不起眼的通道引向自助餐区。那里面悬挂了一幅大型的由比利时艺术家Rinus Van de Velde绘制的作品。
 
Siesegem火葬场拥有两个举行仪式的会堂。最大的那个面积相当宽敞,足以容纳600位来宾。KAAN建筑团队负责整个设计过程,包括其中的家具,特别是长椅。在火葬场空间中不断出现的米黄色,也被设计师采用到这些造型优雅的长椅的皮垫上。设计师不但看中了米黄色柔和的质感,也考虑到这个颜色与沙粒尘土的直接联系。通过会堂后部的玻璃望出便是一个露台,这样周围的景色就和建筑直接联系了起来。两个会堂都设有家庭间和一个用以哀悼的地方。在它们旁边,种满绿植的室外区域连接了自然与日光,为来者减轻了由失去亲人朋友带来的精神上的伤痛。
 
接下来,对于仪式空间来说,火葬场的专业功能也是设计中的一个基础部分。设计师力图把火化过程公开,而非隐藏起来。由此也产生了不同寻常,却具有张力的,在机能和沉寂之间的两极关系。家具上柔和的沙黄色和火化炉,以及从屋顶玻璃开口处向外延伸的烟囱形成呼应。这些设计都为火葬场注入了一丝庄严和亲密感。
 
材料的选择和对细节的兼顾是营造火葬场的平和气氛必不可少的元素。在建筑外部,KAAN建筑团队以清水混凝土为基调;而在内部的设计,哑光墙体由富有触感的涂层包裹着,同时粗糙的天花板表面用以保证这种建筑内必需的静音声效。橡木拼花地板则用以装饰家庭室和自助餐区。
 
所有的空间都表达着该建筑的精髓。Ceppo di Gré大理石在其中扮演着必不可少的角色。在把石块切割成2.4米x1米的板块后,建筑师把它们特别组装成了一个视觉上协调的整体。地板和墙面都是用这个方式进行处理的。同时,大厅的接待台,吧台,读经台,灵棺和庭院围墙的高缘使用的都是这种大理石。
 
传统上相较其他国家而言,比利时的火葬场含括更复杂的功用。这是人们会合、享用餐食,以及与亲友重新联系的地方。因此,对参与者而言意义重大的体验和对话是这个项目中至关重要的方面。为了使路标尽量少的出现,KAAN建筑团队设计了清楚易识的空间以及路线。这样,不但避免了来者在建筑中迷失方向,平时只不过是背景的建筑也一跃成为了空间向导。设计为室内倾注了平和安静的氛围,空间的次序也令大家格外进入深思,火葬场也从而与来者建立起更深度的感情关系。
 
Siesegem火葬场是对垂直结构的赞歌,但同时单从几何以及平衡比例上讲,也不乏对水平结构的关注。火葬场那令人深感平静的环境和景观融合在了一起,并散发出了真正的安宁感。总之,Siesegem整体的建筑和周围的场地丝毫不见那种浮夸的纪念碑式建筑风格,而是一片深入记忆的安宁绿洲。

Architects in Charge:Kees Kaan, Vincent Panhuysen, Dikkie Scipio

Project Team :Bas Barendse, Dante Borgo, Maicol Cardelli, Timo Cardol, Sebastian van Damme, Paolo Faleschini, Raluca Firicel, Cristina Gonzalo Cuairán, Michael Geensen, Walter Hoogerwerf, Marco Lanna, Giuseppe Mazzaglia, Exequiel Mulder, Ismael Planelles Naya, Giulia Rapizza, Ana Rivero Esteban, Giacomo Rizzi
Client:Intergemeentelijke Samenwerking Westlede (IGS)
Contractor:Jan de Nul, Hofstade-Aalst (Belgium)
Advisor construction:Pieters Bouwtechniek, Delft (Netherlands)
Project management:KAAN Architecten, Rotterdam; Bureau Bouwtechniek, Antwerp (Belgium)
Water, electrical, installations and supervision:Henk Pijpaert Engineering, Oudenaarde (Belgium)
Acoustics, climate, physics:DGMR, Arnhem (Netherlands)
Ovens:DFW, Broek op Langedijk (Netherlands)
Multimedia:BIS, Ridderkerk (Netherlands)

 
Text description provided by the architects. Located in the countryside bordering the western ring road of the Belgian city, the crematorium, with its 74 x 74-meter footprint, merges with trees and shrubs that line the perimeter of the surrounding park, which was conceived by landscape architect Erik Dhont. Approaching the entrance at Blauwenbergstraat, a sense of calm pervades the site and upon arrival, visitors are subtly persuaded to slow down by the undulating gentle green mounds. To the north, a pond serves as a reservoir for rainwater, while small adjacent hills are dedicated to scattered ashes and to an urn garden. At the eastern end, there is a service road for the hearses that is entirely hidden from view so that families are not disturbed during the mourning ceremony, and so that privacy is respected.? ?
 
 
 
Architecture accompanies the transition from a busy outside world into a metaphorical and physical interior imbued with calm and restraint. The south-western corner of the building opens onto a patio and serves as a transitional zone, welcoming visitors and leading them towards the indoor spaces. As crematoria are typically characterized by complex logistics, KAAN Architecten has designed a building that is self-explanatory and feels natural to use.?
 
 
Upon entering the crematorium, a sequence of spaces shapes the visitor’s physical experience, preventing spatial confusion. At 6.4 meters tall, the remarkable floor-to-ceiling height of the interior enhances the sense of vastness, paired by the warm abundance of daylight. A large concrete canopy stretches into a generously proportioned hall from which the reception desk is immediately visible. The reception hall is infused with light by two large windows overlooking a landscaped garden and houses a discreet passageway to the cafeteria, which features a large-scale painting by Belgian artist Rinus Van de Velde.?
 
 
Crematorium Siesegem encompasses two ceremonial assembly halls. The largest has generous dimensions, with seating for 600 people. KAAN Architecten was involved in the overall design, including the furnishings, and in particular the benches: elegantly shaped seating with leather upholstery in yellow-beige color, a recurrent hue for the Crematorium spaces, chosen for its gentle texture and direct reference to sand and dust. The back surface is glazed and looks out onto a patio, directly connecting the building to the surrounding landscape. Both assembly spaces have a family room and a place for condolences; besides them, an outdoor area with greenery links nature to daylight and offers a counterweight to the intensity and spirituality experienced by the bereaved.?
 
 
Next, to the ceremony spaces, the technical aspects of the building are also a fundamental part of the design. The architects endeavor to disclose, rather than hide the cremation process, creating an unusual yet effective polarity between the mechanics and the serenity. The soft sandy yellow color of the furniture is echoed by the ovens and the chimney that stretches up through a glazed opening in the roof. A sense of dignity and intimacy infuses the building.?
 
 
The choice of materials and the detailing are paramount to achieving a placid mood. For the exterior, KAAN Architecten chose the rhythm of béton brut. For the interior, the walls are matt and have a textured render, while the ceiling has a rough sprayed finish to ensure muted acoustics – a fundamental feature of such a building. Oak parquet floors have been chosen for the family rooms and the cafeteria.?
 
 
All the spaces express the essence of the architecture, and Ceppo di Gré marble plays a vital role. After sawing the stone blocks into 2.4 x 1-meter plates, the architects arranged a composition that results in a visually coherent pattern. Floors and walls have been treated in the same way. Identical marble was used for the reception desk in the long foyer, the bar, the lectern, the catafalque and the high skirting of the courtyard walls.?
 
 
In Belgium, crematoria traditionally have a more complex programme that other countries. They are spaces for gathering, enjoying a meal and reconnecting with relatives and friends. The client’s significant experience and dialogue were crucial to the project. KAAN Architecten designed legible spaces and easily readable routing to reduce signage to a minimum. Visitors should never feel lost, and architecture goes beyond being a mere background, to offer spatial guidance. The interior speaks to visitors and appeals to their emotions: it instills calmness and the sequence of spaces enhances reflection.?
 
 
The Crematorium Siesegem is an ode to verticality, while being horizontal and pure in its geometry and balanced proportions. Its calm, easily readable environment and tranquil landscape merge together to emanate genuine serenity. Without succumbing to pompous monumentalism, the building and its surrounding grounds are a peaceful oasis for reminiscence.?
 





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