西班牙上世纪60年代独户住宅改扩建(Owl's House )- estudio GonzaloGA

编辑导读:上世纪60年代独户住宅的改扩建,在扩建部分采用了和旧建筑一致的屋顶保持了建筑的整体性和连贯性,在拆除区域下挖设置了底层通透明亮的空间,以及庭院、花园…现代化更加开放的改造。(经典值评价:7.1)
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项目概况:
建筑设计:estudio GonzaloGA
地点:西班牙(Benahavís, Spain)
建筑面积:400.0 m2
完工时间:2017
照片版权:Luis Díaz Díaz
 
项目简介:
背景
项目是基于一个建于上世纪60年代的独户住宅的改扩建。被新买主收购之前,房屋处于半荒废的状态。这位客户希望房屋在改建之后具有一些新的功能。
 
功能配置
原先的住宅是为一个配有保姆的三口之家设计的。而现在,住宅要满足四名家庭成员的生活需求,并包括一个会客区、一个独立的公寓、一个游乐区。另外,设计还需要提供能将房子分成两个独立单元的可能性。
 
设计策略
房屋重建和修复的最大挑战是如何将既存建筑的空间发展得更加丰富和契合业主要求。建筑师希望用更加多变的立面变化来添加和划分住宅内部的使用功能。由于原有住宅有部分房屋已经处于废墟的状态,拆除老建筑东侧翼的部分是不可避免的。新建建筑将在这个拆除的区域内进行空间的重新分配和利用,并在体量的组合关系上尽量保持与原有建筑逻辑一致。功能的排布与体量的连续变化是密切相关的。新建部分的功能包括厨房、起居室、卧室和浴室。原始住宅被改造成一个拥有独立出入口的公寓。新老建筑成L型的组合关系。设计的独特之处在于,仅仅通过住宅外立面和屋顶的建筑语言,就可以很清晰地梳理出整栋房屋的架构。
 
设计手法
住宅改造的重点是拆除和更新老建筑的东侧翼部分。为了增加建筑高度,但又不影响新建建筑的屋顶同老建筑屋顶的连贯性,项目在拆除的区域下挖了三米,以适应业主对于住宅功能的需求。为了让下挖空间的功能配置更合理,使用品质更高,建筑师在住宅北侧开辟出一条英式庭院。庭院内植被郁郁青青,阳光也可以直达住宅底层。底层空间主要由大面积玻璃包裹,通透而明亮,增强了空间南北向的连续性。幽深而狭长的庭院,通过连续而精致的景观设计,在两个转角之后即可看到房屋南侧的花园,视野顿时开阔,虚实变幻,收放自如,让人称道。
 
新建部分南北两侧的立面有着两种不同的性格。北侧只有地上一层的立面是可见的。地上一层与原始房屋标高相同,为了与之立面风格一致,项目使用传统的建筑技术建造。新与旧,在此完美融合,但又能感受到两个年代的区别。而南侧地上地下部分的立面均可见,因而设计更加现代和开放。大面积的开窗,充分引入自然光和住宅两侧的优质景观。传统建筑技术和现代建筑技术混合应用。新与旧,在此发生碰撞,但又互不干扰。
 
建筑屋顶采用金属桁架结构,各部分的倾斜角度因内部功能的划分而不同。屋顶的一部分是用旧瓷修复的,其余是仿照原始材质用瓷砖薄片完成的,以保证建筑语言的连续性。

Author Architects:Gonzalo Gutierrez Araujo
Collaborators:Adrià Escolano Ferrer, José Gómez Villarrubia
Kitchen Design:Lauren Boulay
Structure:Miguel Rueda
Wooden Carpentry:Bonoso S.A.U
Metallic Carpentry:Aluminios del Sur S.L.
Installations:G.Codora S.L
Acknowledgments:Premio Especial Obra Joven. Premios de Arquitectura de Málaga; Obra Nominada. Premio Arquia/Próxima 2018
BACKGROUND
A single-family house (built in the 60’s) in a partial state of ruin is acquired by a new owner, who demands new functionalities for the house.

PROGRAM
The original house was designed to accommodate a family of 3 members and a service person. The new configuration of the house should contain a family of 4 members, a guest area, an independent apartment, a playground and the possibility of dividing the house into two separate units.
 
 
STRATEGY
The biggest challenge posed by the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the house is the integration of a new area with more surface in the same pre-existing footprint. Due to the partial state of ruin, it is necessary to demolish the eastern rectangular wing of the original house. The new construction must contain this newly available space and multiply the built meters to accommodate the new programmatic needs. The spatial configuration is developed by concatenating successive blocks of the program (kitchen, living room, bedrooms, and bathroom) with the inclusion of an L block that houses an apartment with independent access. The reading of the blocks can be done through the volumetry expressed in the façade and roof of the house.
 
 
TACTICS
The most notorious modification occurs in the reconstructed east wing where the height is doubled (enabling a previously non-existent basement) and reconfigures to accommodate the new program. With the intention of creating a quality and functional basement, a tropical English patio that allows light to reach the basement is created. The glass envelope throughout this lower floor provides light and favors the reading of the continuous space, connecting the English patio with the garden to the south of the house. 
 
 
The new reconstructed wing has a formal and constructive duality, sharing aesthetics and similar solutions to the previous house in the entire north façade (arrival to the house) since it is in this area of the house where you can see both eras. This facade has been resolved with traditional construction techniques to achieve the integration of the new part with the old. On the other hand, the south façade takes advantage of the views and the sunlight by opening large windows, resolved with a constructive hybrid system between the traditional and contemporary construction techniques. 
 
 
The roof of the building is done with a structure of metal trusses whose inclinations vary in each block. Part of the new roof is made with the old tile recovered and the rest is completed with a flat tile similar to the preexisting, giving continuity to the language of the original house.
 





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