杭州建德市渔乡茶舍(Teahouse in Jiuxing Village )- gad · line+ studio + Greenton Architecture Design

编辑导读:渔乡茶舍依偎在富春江畔的山坳中,贴合地形延展逐层退台,以片层形式进行了体量消解,同时获得了风景界面的最大化。建筑采用了粗粝厚重的混凝土材料,薄而深远的挑板与厚实的外形形成了强烈的对比。(经典值评价:6.8)
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项目概况:
建筑设计:绿城建筑设计(Greenton Architecture Design), gad · line+ studio
地点:中国,浙江省杭州市,建德(Jiande, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China)
主持建筑师:孟凡浩(Fanhao Meng)
建筑面积:2463.0 m2
完工时间:2018
照片版权:Yilong Zhao, Fanhao Meng

项目简介:
在江南典型的乡村山水环境中,通过对体量的消解、对材料的再思考,对施工的深度介入,让建筑与环境的关系呈现出一种耐人寻味的亲密关系。传统与现代、厚重与轻盈、消解与挺拔,似乎是几对相互对立且矛盾的词汇,却在同一个建筑中呈现。
 
场地与形态
渔乡茶舍位于浙江省杭州建德市,建德古为百越地,历史悠久,山川秀丽,旅游资源丰富。建德政府提出“全域旅游发展战略”,计划投资打造一个江南秘境主题景区,渔乡茶舍属于其中最先启动的公共建筑,承载着接待和休闲的功能要求。“渔乡茶舍”这个名字,顾名思义,便是在有山有水、烟雨朦胧的渔村水乡中,营造一个喝茶的地方。
 
场地位于富春江、兰江、新安江三江交汇处,江面开阔;拥三江,观乌龙山,望双塔,山水相映。周边散落分布着一些小村庄,建筑的典型特征是青白墙,给人质朴清新的感觉。民居形制无论是平面、立面还是室内外装饰,都明显地与皖南、赣北的住宅近似。
 
基地位于一个山坳,直面江水,风景界面最大化和体量融于环境是设计之初的两个基本出发点。方案没有追求一个焦点式的视觉形象,而是以消解体量的片层形式呈现,并且以巧妙的动线设计将游山观山的情趣引入了建筑的室内空间。
 
设计利用地形高差,将茶舍与接待两个功能,分为主次两栋贴合地形延展的退台建筑,逐层叠退,不仅视觉上弱化建筑体量,同时产生了大量的一线江景的露台场所。主楼实际为三层,为保证更好的景观视野,将整个建筑体量由高向低逐层下挂。顶层地面标高与后山平齐,与村落相接,底层通过两层毛石垒砌的灰空间与滨水道路相连,有效减少行人对使用空间的干扰。
 
河边的杉树与坡上的樟树,分别作为入口提示,坡下围绕杉树做了圆形的院子,入口处通过片墙延伸,将空间蔓延至周边,模糊了建筑与自然的边界。这样“双入口”的设计也是建筑师在业主功能不能明确的情况下,保证未来使用灵活性的一种应对策略。
 
沿着毛石砌筑护坡拾阶而上,建筑体量隐藏在山坳中,沿江面展现的是数层宽阔的观景平台,来访者在深远的挑檐下几经转折,视线在江面与临山楼梯间转换,空间时而开阔时而幽狭。
 
材料与构造
传统坡屋顶、分散布局、乡野材料、木构工艺是在当前乡村环境中建筑创作的习惯性选择。可当前国内绝大多数施工队伍更熟悉的是工业化建造工序和技术,传统手工艺由于匠人的缺失导致施工成本和时间周期都难以控制。
 
line+对材料和形式的思考是同步的,选择混凝土来建造这样一幢坐落于乡村环境中的公共建筑有多重考虑。首先混凝土材质与设计师的整体设计策略最为一致,作为一种在自然环境中介入感比较强的材料,能够与建筑整体谦和的体量策略达到一种平衡;而木模板特有的纹理又赋予了混凝土材料特殊的尺度和质感,能够弥补单一材料在趣味性上的缺失。
 
建筑师设想,当建造活动结束后,在温润潮湿的环境中,茂盛植物逐渐攀附混凝土墙面屋顶。若要使建筑真正成为景观的一部分,那长久的契合于场地必须借助时间的力量。这或许是在当下不断呼吁“乡土材料”、“传统符号”、“东方性”的大背景下,存在于江南山水环境中建筑风格的另一种可能性。
 
选择混凝土这种一次成型材料,也是对建筑设计深度与施工配合的一次考验。建筑师希望通过对结构设备的细致处理,强化空间的纯粹性。因不设置吊顶,为了隐藏管道与空调风口,针对建筑的不同部位,分别设计了400mm、600mm及1000mm三种不同厚度的混凝土夹心墙系统,分别对应保温层、管井、设备空腔三种功能。为了保证概念的延续,建筑师将室内景观一体化设计,灯具、开关面板、电线统一提前预埋,入口处的景观座椅、嵌入式扶手、排水口等细节也进行整体设计。
 
建造与实施
项目从 2017年9月份开始施工,2018年8月整体拆模,历时近一年,设计工作贯穿着整个施工过程,建筑师希望在大尺度的山水环境中突出材料相对强烈肌理感,在正式浇筑前,经过多次实验,选择了纹理较为清晰但成本并不高的碳化木板作为模板。为把控施工效果,采用同一模数错缝拼装的折中模板方案。施工完成后,建筑师刻意保留了一些瑕疵,希望手工建造的痕迹能被感知。
 
渔乡茶舍从形式创作的手法上来看,它始终是简洁的,简洁到只剩板、柱、剪力墙等作为建筑的必要要素,但从技术细节的角度来说,它又是复杂的,实现了设备、室内、景观的一体化设计。通过对地形的借用,接近完工的渔乡茶舍依偎在富春江畔的山坳中,薄而深远的挑板与粗粝厚重的混凝土产生的“薄”与“厚”的对比,在光影的调和下,已频频打动亲临现场的人们。

Design Team:Yaliang He, Tao Tao
Structural engineer:Yingdong Wu, Xiaoping Ye
MEP engineer:Daliang Cui, Guocai Yao, Fangfang Li(HVAC), Feiyu Ren, Yue Wang (Electrical), Bin Zhang, Ting Hu (Water supply and drainage)
Construction Firm:Hangzhou Xianglin Construction Co., Ltd.
Client:Jiande Jiangnan Mystery Tourism Development Co., Ltd.

Text description provided by the architects. In the typical rural landscape environment of the south of the Yangtze River, line+ creates a public space in the scenic spot. Through the dispelling of volume and the rethinking of the materials, the deep involvement of the construction makes the relationship between architecture and the environment an intriguing intimacy. Tradition and modernity, thick and light, dispelling and upright, seem to be pairs of opposite and contradictory words, but they are considered and presented in the same architectural project.

Site and Form
Teahouse in Jiuxing Village is located in Jiande City, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Jiande was a place of Baiyue in ancient times, with a long history, beautiful mountains and rivers and rich with tourism resources. The Jiande government proposed a Global Tourism Development Strategy and planned to invest in creating a theme park in the south of the Yangtze River. The Teahouse in Jiuxing Village was the firstly built public building, which carries the function of reception and leisure.
 
 
The site is located at the intersection of three rivers, Fuchun River, Lanjiang and Xin’an River. The river surface is wide; embracing the three rivers, watching Wulong Mountain and the twin towers, rivers and hills add beauty to each other. There are some small villages scattered around the building. The typical features of the building are blue brick white walls, giving a simple and fresh feeling. The shape of the house, whether it is flat, fa?ade or decoration of indoor and outdoor, is obviously similar to the houses in Southern Anhui and North Jiangxi.
 
 
The site is located in a cove of the hill, facing directly to the river. Maximizing the landscape interface and integrating the volume into the environment are two basic starting points at the beginning of the design. The program does not pursue a focus-oriented visual image, but presents it in the form of dispelling the volume, and introduces the interest of the mountain to the interior space of the building with a clever dynamic design.
 
 
The design used the terrain height difference to divide the two functions of the tea house and the reception into the main and secondary buildings, which were extended to the top of the building, and gradually collapsed, which not only visually weakened the volume of the building, but also produced a terrace place with a big view of first-line Rivers. The main building actually has three floors. In order to ensure a better view of the landscape, the entire building volume is from high to low. The elevation of the top floor is flush with that of the back hill and is connected with the village. The ash space is connected with the waterfront road through the two layers of masonry, which effectively reduces the interference of pedestrians on the use of the space.
 
 
The cedar trees along the river and the eucalyptus trees on the slopes serve as sign of the entrance. The circular courtyard is built around the cedar trees. The entrance extends through the walls, spreading the space to the surrounding area, blurring the boundary between architecture and nature. Such a Double Entry design is also a response strategy for architects to ensure flexibility in future use when the owner\'s function is not clear.
 
 
Along the stone masonry slope protection, the building volume is hidden in the cove of the hills. Along the river surface, there are several layers of platforms with wide views. The visitors made turns under the eaves with changing views of rivers and mountain side stair space. And the space is wide and narrow in turn.
 
 
Material and construction
Traditional sloping roofs, scattered layouts, rural materials, and wood construction are the habitual choices for architectural creation in the current rural environment. At present, most construction teams in China are more familiar with industrial construction processes and technologies. Due to the lack of craftsmen, the construction cost and time period are difficult to control.

line+\'s thinking about materials and forms is synchronous, and there are multiple considerations in choosing concrete to build such a public building in a rural environment. First of all, the concrete material is most consistent with the designer\'s overall design strategy. As a material with a strong sense of intervention in the natural environment, it can achieve a balance with the overall modest volume strategy of the building; the unique texture of the wood template gives the concrete material a special sense of scale and texture, which can make up for the lack of fun of the single material.

The architect envisions that when the construction activity is over, the lush vegetation gradually climbs to the concrete wall roof in a warm and humid environment. To make the building truly part of the landscape, the long-term fit of the venue must rely on the power of time. This may be another possibility that exists in the landscape style of the south of the Yangtze River landscape in the context of the current call for Native Materials, Traditional Symbols and Orientalism.
 
The choice of concrete as a molding material is also a test of the depth of construction design and construction. Architects hope to enhance the purity of space through careful handling of structural equipment. Because there is no ceiling, in order to conceal the pipeline and air-conditioning vent, aiming at different parts of the building, three kinds of concrete sandwich wall systems with different thickness, 400 mm, 600 mm and 1000mm, are designed respectively, which correspond to three functions of insulation layer, pipe well and equipment cavity. In order to ensure the continuation of the concept, the architect integrated the interior and landscape design, the lamps, switch panels and wires were pre-buried in advance, and the details of the landscape seat, embedded handrails and drains at the entrance were also overall design.

Construction and implementation
The project started construction in September 2017 and was demolished in August 2018. It lasted for nearly one year. The design work is conducted through the entire construction process. The architect hopes to highlight the relatively strong texture of the material in the large-scale landscape environment. Before formal pouring and after many experiments, carbonized wood boards with clear texture but not high cost were selected as templates. In order to control the construction effect, the final compromised template solution is using the same modulus and staggered assembly. After the construction was completed, the architect deliberately retained some flaws, hoping that the traces of manual construction could be perceived.

From the perspective of formal creation, the Teahouse in Jiuxing Village is always simple and concise, only necessary elements of the building such as plates, columns, shear walls, and so on. But from the technical point of view, it is complicated. It realizes the integrated design of equipment, interior and landscape. Through the borrowing of the terrain, the close-to-finish teahouse is nestled in the foothills of the Fuchun River. The contrasts of thin and far-reaching pick-up and the rough and heavy concrete, under the reconciliation, people on site have been frequently moved.





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