墨西哥有机住宅(Organic House )- Javier Senosiain

编辑导读:绿地下的半掩埋住宅,如同霍比特人洞穴小屋的现代化实现,室内仿生的平滑的壳体,敞亮的窗户,同时拥有良好的通风……(经典值评价:7.3)
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项目概况:
建筑设计:Javier Senosiain
地点:墨西哥,瑙卡尔潘(Naucalpan de Juárez, Mexico)
建筑面积:178.0 m2
完工时间:1984
 
项目简介:
该项目最初的想法是来自于一个花生壳:两个宽敞明亮的椭圆形空间和一个低矮狭窄的昏暗空间结合在一起。该方案是根据人们生活的基本功能需求设计的:一个共同居住的空间,包括有房间、餐厅和厨房,还有一个带有衣帽间和浴室的卧室。项目最初的概念是定义出了两大空间:一个代表白天一个代表黑夜,目的是让里面的人能够寻找既将进入土地的感觉,在不失去与外部绿地的融合的情况下,去感受这个空间的独特性。
 
在施工过程中,必须做到与设计的一致性。为此,使用了一种可塑材料,就像是游戏模型中的橡皮泥。再通过可塑性的要求,在施工时,材料必须满足要求,使其能够超越雕塑的质量。通过调研得知,采用水泥复合砂浆钢筋网结构无疑是正确的选择。这种结构开始组装在一个类似滑板轨道的模板上,构成一个具有金属骨架的壳体,那些架子以圆环的形式排列,并根据空间的不同改变高度。最终形成螺旋缠绕形态。在框架的末端,将两根编织在一起的绳子固定,然后再灌上水泥砂浆形成壳体。再在外壳上喷涂3/4英寸厚的聚氨酯层,起到绝缘和防水作用。
 
土壤和草地让保护膜免受太阳、风、冰雹和干湿循环等恶劣气候带来的伤害;同时也避免了膨胀和收缩产生的裂缝和带来的湿度影响。绿色的沙丘是几乎看不见的内部体量的包络线。从外面我们只能看到草、灌木、树和花。走在花园里并不会意识到其实就是走在屋顶上面。
 
与人们的想法相反,这个半掩埋的房子比传统的房子更明亮,阳光更充足。 在这种类型的住宅中,窗户可以朝向任何方向,光线和阳光可以从上面进入。同时运用空气动力学原理让空气能够自由循环,形成良好的通风。

Project:Daniel Arredondo
Construction:Juan Sánchez Torres
Site Area:540.0 m2

Text description provided by the architects. The original idea of the project took its simile from a peanut shell: two wide oval spaces with lots of light, united by a space in low and narrow gloom. This proposal arose based on the requirements of the elementary functions of man: a space to live together, with room, dining room and kitchen and another to sleep, with dressing room and bathroom. The original concept is defined in two large spaces: one day and one night, looking for the feeling that inside the person will enter the land, that was aware of the uniqueness of this space without losing integration with the exterior green areas.

In the construction process, it was necessary to achieve the same continuity as the design. For this, a moldable material was used that would allow a game similar to that of the plasticine in the models. Coupled with this requirement of plasticity, it was evident that when dealing with a house, the material had to fulfill requirements that took it beyond the sculptural mass. The investigation began and soon there was no doubt: the ferrocement was the right answer. The assembly of the ferrocement began on the template that looked like a skateboard track, forming the shell with a metallic skeleton, in which the rods were arranged in the form of rings, changing the height according to the space. Next, the rods were spirally wound. At the end of the frame, two ropes of coop braided together were fixed, and then the concrete was thrown. The cover was then coated with a 3/4 inch layer of sprayed polyurethane, which serves as an insulator and waterproofing.
 
 
The earth and the grass protect the membrane from the sun, the wind, the hail and the wet-dry cycle; avoiding dilatations and contractions that cause fissures and consequently humidity. The green dune is the envelope of the interior volume that is almost invisible. From the outside we only see grass, shrubs, trees and flowers. Walking on the garden is walking on the roof of the house without realizing it.
 
 
Contrary to what one might think, this semi-buried house was brighter and more sunny than a conventional house. In this type of housing the windows can be directed towards any orientation and the domes allow the entrance of light and sun from above. The ventilation is facilitated thanks to the aerodynamic forms of the dwelling that allow the free circulation of air.
 





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