芬兰赫尔辛基颂歌中央图书馆(Oodi Helsinki Central Library )- ALA Architects

编辑导读:整个建筑在结构的帮助下尽显梦幻,巨大的无柱空间,突出的异型悬臂平台,顶层似云端的图书空间。是方体形式的大胆创新,也是参数化等技术手段的有效实现。(经典值评价:8.1)
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项目概况:
建筑设计:ALA Architects
地点:芬兰,赫尔辛基(Helsinki, Finland)
芬兰语:Helsingin keskustakirjasto Oodi
瑞典语:Helsingfors centralbibliotek Ode
建筑面积:17250.0 m2
完工时间:2018
照片版权:Tuomas Uusheimo 

项目简介:
Oodi(“颂歌”(芬兰语:Oodi,瑞典语:Ode))的落成标志着图书馆的全新时代:这座位于赫尔辛基市中心的新建筑几乎完全由公共空间构成,并且提供种类齐全的功能服务。在未来,Oodi将成为城市公共图书馆网络中的重要节点。
 
图书馆的功能被划分为三个层次:充满活力的首层空间、安静的顶层空间,以及位于这二者之间的、功能更加具体的中央空间。设计利用拱形元素来吸引人们使用不同的功能空间。最终的建筑呈现为一处具有启发性且功能强大的场所,为赫尔辛基和所处区的城市生活注入了新的活力。

建筑的首层空间与议会大厦对面的Kansalaistori市民广场形成了无缝衔接。灵活的空间可用于举办各类小型和大型活动。电影院和多功能厅可与开放式大厅连接为一个整体,也可以分开使用以满足不同的活动需要。穿越首层空间即可大致了解整栋建筑的功能和服务。具有雕塑感的木制拱形元素如桥梁般延伸在首层空间上方,这一创新性的解决方案使无柱空间得以实现,并最大程度地提高了建筑的可达性和功能空间的辨识度。

位于顶层的“图书天堂”是一处规模宏大的开放式景观,其顶部覆盖以白色的天花板,犹如一朵起伏的云。在这里,当代图书馆的强大功能与先进技术带来的种种可能性发生了精彩的碰撞。安静平和的氛围使来访者能够沉下心来进行阅读、学习、思考和放松。楼层的高度更带来360度无阻碍的城市视野。

在中间的“阁楼”层,用于支撑顶部桥梁的桁架之间形成了一系列灵活且不规则的空间。这些封闭式的空间可以同时满足安静和嘈杂的活动需要。位于中央的阶梯座位则呼应了建筑西立面起伏的悬臂体量。

通过直接敞开于周围的城市景观并消解室内外区域的界限,图书馆与Töölönlahdenkatu区形成了紧密的连接,首层大厅和装有玻璃幕墙的多功能厅则成为了室外空间的一种延伸。拱形的木制体量在朝向市民广场的入口上方形成一个巨大的顶篷,在带来有顶室外空间的同时,也将地面餐厅等功能空间扩展至广场上。位于顶篷顶端的大型公共平台使可利用的户外空间面积增加了一倍,同时为图书馆的来访者们提供了游玩、聚会和观赏城市风景的好去处。

图书馆大楼设有3个公共入口:南面的入口主要服务于来自中央火车站方向的人群;西面的入口与市民广场相连,由伸出的天蓬提供遮蔽;位于东北角的入口则服务于家庭图书馆和电影院的访客。设备和后勤空间位于地下层。行政办公室和仓库尽可能地远离公共楼层,从而最大化地加强图书馆的开放性和可达性。

在芬兰,图书馆是法定运营的公共设施,因此赫尔辛基图书馆的基本服务均向公众免费开放。新的图书馆将站在城市图书馆体系的最前沿,为市民提供广泛的服务(例如大量的休息空间等),并为赫尔辛基信息中心、Europa Experience信息中心以及由国家视听学院创立的Kino Regina影院提供辅助支持。图书馆每周7天向市民开放。新的图书馆不仅是赫尔辛基大都市区规模最大的图书馆,同时也将成为当地最受欢迎的目的地和公共空间。图书馆预计每日接待1万名访客,年访问量将达到250万人次。

新的图书馆将使城市环境变得更加多样化,并为所有年龄段的使用者提供活动体验,使人们可以在同一座建筑中共度美好时光。作为商业性的公共空间,图书馆还将充当赫尔辛基本地居民的“大客厅”,同时作为工作和学习空间使用。这样一来,图书馆的用户也将从被动的媒介使用者转变为主动的参与者和内容生产者。

技术细节
设计概念以三个独立的公共楼层为基础,通过在首层空间上方置入跨度超过100米的不对称桥梁结构而得以实现。该桥梁结构由钢桁架和钢梁构成,并由两个巨大的拱形钢结构提供支撑,其外部包覆以钢筋混凝土张力板。这一创新性的结构方案能够在构建无柱内部空间的同时,为地下公路隧道的修建提供可能。二级钢制桁架为悬挑的阳台和从屋顶延伸的不对称顶篷提供了支撑,成为一个能够适应永久和临时功能需要的独特结构。
 
建筑采用当地材料建造,并充分考虑了当地的气候条件。木制立面由预制单元构成。33毫米厚的优质芬兰云杉木被用于外墙饰面。项目团队还特别为木材的切割和加工开发了新的评级和质量控制系统。形态复杂的曲面是借助参数化3D设计工具得以生成并达到预期的精度。立面的质感和色泽将随着时间的推移而变得愈发细腻和富有深度。
 
建筑外墙结构的设计遵循了团队既定的被动式设计目标。对幕墙性能的深入分析为环保型的解决方案提供了有用的信息,使设计团队能够最大程度地降低对机械性环境控制系统的需要。玻璃幕墙为公共区域带来充足的自然光,减少了人工照明的使用,从而使室内空间的质量得到提升。精心规划的布局为空间赋予了更大的灵活性。所以有的公共楼层都配有活动地板系统,使建筑在150年的预期寿命内能够灵活地进行调整和更新。
 
图书馆建筑拥有卓越的节能表现,其能耗水平接近零能耗建筑(nZEB)的标准。优异的节能性要归功于高效的基础设备系统。木制元素的应用(如建筑外部的木制饰面)也为建筑赋予了材料上的高效性。建筑信息模型工具被应用到建筑设计、施工设计和设计兼容度的分析当中,并将在未来被用于建筑的保养和维护。

Text description provided by the architects. Oodi occupies a hugely significant site in central Helsinki: facing the steps of the Finnish parliament building, the Eduskuntatalo across the Kansalaistori square, a public space flanked by major civic institutions.
 
The siting of Oodi opposite the Eduskuntatalo was chosen to be symbolic of the relationship between the government and the populace, and act as a reminder of the Finnish Library Act’s mandate for libraries to promote lifelong learning, active citizenship, democracy and freedom of expression. It also places the new library in the heart of Helsinki’s cultural district, close to many of the capital’s great institutions.
 
 
Oodi has a peaceful open-plan reading room on the upper floor that has been nicknamed “book heaven”, but books only fill one third of the space within the library. By reducing on-site storage and consulting library-users on how they access culture, the designers and librarians of Oodi have been able to introduce facilities including a café, restaurant, public balcony, movie theatre, audio-visual recording studios and a makerspace. This is representative of broader experimentation within Finnish libraries to offer new services in addition to loaning books.
 
 
The design divides the functions of the library into three distinct levels: an active ground floor that extends the town square into an interior space; “book heaven” on the upper level; and an enclosed in-between volume containing rooms to accommodate additional services and facilities within the library. This spatial concept has been realised by building the library as an inhabited bridge, with two massive steel arches that span over 100 meters to create a fully enclosed, column-free public entrance space, clusters of rooms grouped around the structure, and the open-plan reading room carried above.?
 
 
Oodi has been built using local materials and with local climate conditions in mind. The timber fa?ade is clad with 33-millimeter-thick Finnish spruce planks that conform to the sweeping curve that extends the building outwards to create a canopy above the Kansalaistori square, blending the interior and exterior spaces and creating shelter for public events in front of the library.
 
 
The upper surface of the canopy structure has been used to create a large public terrace, from which Helsinki citizens can look directly over the square to the steps and main entrance of the Finnish parliament. The terrace doubles the amount of public outdoor space provided for library visitors and creates a new destination where people can meet and observe the city below.
 
 
The ground floor of Oodi extends the Kansalaistori square into an interior public space. The purpose of the ground floor is to make each of the facilities of the library apparent and accessible and provide a non-commercial interior space open to all, every day of the week. Kino Regina, the National Audiovisual Institute’s movie theatre will occupy a space on the ground floor, together with a cafe restaurant with seating that will spill out onto the square in the summer months.
 
 
The middle floor, known as the “Attic”, consists of flexible rooms arranged around the intimate nooks and corners that inhabit the spaces between the trusses of the bridge structure. The multi-function rooms are designed to accommodate both noisy and quiet activities and it is on this floor that Oodi will offer facilities such as its makerspace and recording studios.
 
 
“Book Heaven” on the top floor, is a vast open landscape topped with an undulating cloud-like white ceiling punctured by circular rooflights. Here the best characteristics of the modernist library meet the possibilities provided by 21st Century technologies. The serene atmosphere invites visitors to read, learn, think and to enjoy themselves. From this level visitors can enjoy an unobstructed 360-degree panorama view of the city centre, or step out onto the terrace overlooking Kansalaistori square.
 





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