巴西森林里的“图书馆”住宅(Library House )- Atelier Branco Arquitetura

编辑导读:森林里的玻璃住宅,不同高度的平台对应不同属性的空间,而一个屋顶平台则显得有些神来之笔…整个建筑体现出了十足的纯粹感,是对二十世纪以来玻璃住宅的有效探索…(经典值评价:7.5)
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项目概况:
建筑设计:Atelier Branco Arquitetura
地点:巴西(Brazil)
主持建筑师:Matteo Arnone, Pep Pons
建筑面积:200.0 m2
完工时间:2016
照片版权:Ricardo Bassetti, Gleeson Paulino, Jaqueline Lessa
 
项目简介:
2014年的夏天,Branco工作室的创始成员Matteo Arnone和Pep Pons 设计了一个位于 Vinhedo小镇的休闲房子。客户对这所房子提出了两个要求:它将是一个被场地周围的茂盛的植物所环绕的阅读空间,也是一个位于亚热带无边无际的蓝天下的冥想空间。客户年轻时曾是一名反对巴西军事独裁统治的左派分子,现在是著名的政治学家,自20世纪80年代初起,他在州立大学教学,他把这座房子视作São Paulo和Campinas之间的一个“临时避风港”。因此,这座房子并不是他的常住房子,也不是传统意义上的度假小屋,而是一个冥想和沉思的空间,在繁忙的工作中偶尔抽出一点时间,远离喧嚣的巴西大城市生活。
 
图书馆房子Casa Biblioteca是年轻的建筑师团队Italo-Hispanic duo 最新设计的五件建筑作品,他们曾在在瑞士的Accademia di Architettura di Mendrisio学习,曾经在Christian Kerez、隈研吾和Aires Mateus兄弟的专业指导下进行实践,这五件作品体现了他们对建筑形式的研究。这是一个大胆的方案,使用现浇混凝土,同时这个方案的结构十分精确和细致,这些都是Branco工作室所追求的建筑特色。这两位建筑师在2012年在Sao Paulo创立了他们的工作室,这是一个有特色的工作室,接受多种业务,包括家具产品及其配件,商业展厅和办公空间的设计,在巴西各地建造了许多住宅项目,在近几年展露出他们杰出的设计才能。
 
无论是从客户的要求或是场地环境来看,图书馆房子毫无疑问是这一系列房子中最特殊的一个。这座房子坐落一片茂盛森林中一个朝北的陡坡的顶部,位于Vinhedo的mataatlantica区域,这个森林占据了大部分巴西沿海地区。受场地的地形特色所限,从剖面上看,这个方案根据陡坡的两条轮廓线来划分房子的空间和功能分区。第一条轮廓线将原有的陡坡变为三个宽敞的不同高度的水平平台,提供居住的空间;第二条轮廓线是屋顶,在水平平台的上方和蓝天的下方,创造了一个清晰的宽阔的水平面。
 
从Artigas到Mendes daRocha,巴西战后建筑都有一个特色——混凝土屋顶在整个设计的项目表达和室内室外建筑特征中都扮演了一个至关重要的角色。在这个项目中也是如此。屋顶是一块厚15厘米的长方形混凝土板,由八根长柱支撑,这八根长柱与屋顶形成了鲜明的对比。当行人在道路上行走,靠近房屋时,这一个极其重要的屋顶元素——一个被茂盛的树叶所包围的20米×10米的巨大的观景平台将映入行人的眼帘。一米宽的水沟将取代栏杆,围绕着整个屋顶,环形的水沟创造了中间一个长方形的“岛屿”,住户可以在这里享受到美丽的景色。屋顶上铺有Garapeira木板,两边的木板分别平行于两条对角线,在中线相交,指向远处的地平线。
 
在屋顶上有一个入口,位于两面混凝土墙中有一个楼梯,通向房子的核心空间。这是一个没有分隔的,全都是落地窗的矩形空间,提供了家庭所需的功能,高度逐渐增加,最矮处是较为私密的空间,最高处是较为开放的空间。虽然原有陡坡的坡度不均匀,但是我们建造了不同高度的挡土墙,使整个房子的结构平均分为三个部分,每两个柱子之间的距离是5.5米,也就是每一个平台的宽度是5.5米。因此,虽然这三个平台的宽度相同,但是每一个平台的层高都不一样,根据私密程度以及自然光线的条件,每一个平台可以提供不同的活动空间。睡眠空间位于最高的平台,是一个2.35米高的光线暗淡的私密空间。位于房子中央的平台,层高4.15米,是客户的工作室,同时,客户可以通过两边的两个玻璃门走到室外,享受自然风光(这两个玻璃门位于房子的第二条对称轴上)。离入口最远的平台是客厅与餐厅,能够直接看到周围的绿色植物,就像是普通房子的阳台或观景台一样,同时这也是整个房子最明亮,最开放的空间,层高5.15米,距离地平线1.25米。
 
我们采用了有条理的方法,让客户清楚地知道他所需的核心服务和存储设施的位置——将其与项目的挡土墙所结合,例如第一个平台的两个浴室,所有的结构元素都使用了现场浇注混凝土,采用了顶部照明(与房子的其他所有的空间不同),与外部隔绝;而厨房的设施,书架和衣柜则完美地和墙贴合。因此,这个空间是自由的,不受外界所束缚的。
 
楼梯的位置体现了整体建筑布局的整洁性。除了位于房子中心对称轴上的楼梯以外,两道混凝土材质的楼梯对称地位于房子的两侧。整座房子显得富丽堂皇,这也许归功于材料的选择和处理。外层裸露的结构全部采用了钢筋混凝土,而且是在一个工作日内在建筑师的指导下现场浇筑而成的。平台和屋顶的楼板使用了细长的Garapeira木板,木板的方向与房子的纵轴垂直。整个房子的被巨大的单层玻璃幕墙所围绕,玻璃幕墙的铁框架和设计样式延续了20世纪50年代标志性的“paulistana”传统设计。建筑师对这些建筑元素的关注,使它与现代丑陋厚重的铝框架玻璃幕墙形成鲜明的对比,显现出这个项目的高贵。图书馆房子精细的设计,大量的玻璃幕墙的使用带来一种远离尘世的宁静,使它成为自二十世纪初以来不断进行建筑实验的玻璃房子或玻璃亭的一个典范。

Project Team:Andreas Schneller, Martina Salvaneschi
 
Structural Engineer:John Biscuola (Biscuola Engieneering)
Foundation Engineer:Sergio Ludemann (Ludemann Engieneering)
Systems Engineer:Jo?o Claudinei Alves (JCF projetos e constru??es)
Concrete Formwork:Edivaldo Louren?o e Eduardo Louren?o
Structural System:Concreto fundido in loco em um único dia de trabalho
Materiais:Concreto, a?o, vidro e madeira Garapeira
Plot Area:5.500m2
Built Area:150m2
Total floor area:200m2
Construction Cost:R$ 400.000,00

Text description provided by the architects. When in the summer of 2014, founding members of Atelier Branco, Matteo Arnone and Pep Pons were approached to design a leisurely retreat in the small town of Vinhedo, the brief posited that the house be able to accommodate at least two kind of needs: the need for a place to read, immersed within the site’s vibrant vegetation; the need for a place to think, reposed under the placidness of the area’s boundless subtropical skies. The client, a left block activist against Brazil’s military dictatorship in his youth and now renowned scholar of the history of political thought, had conceived of the house as a temporary haven between São Paulo and Campinas, at which the State University he held teaching posts since the beginning of the nineteen eighties. It was thus neither to be a permanent place of residence nor a holiday home as conventionally understood, but a place of reverie and contemplation, occasionally of work, away from the bustle of Brazil’s hectic metropolitan life.
 
The latest of five built works designed by the young Italo-Hispanic duo, Casa Biblioteca embodies the practice’s attentive research into architectural form, matured both during their formative years in Switzerland, where they had been students of the Accademia di Architettura di Mendrisio, and in their professional upbringings under practitioners of the caliber of Christian Kerez, Kengo Kuma and the two Aires Mateus brothers. It is a bold scheme, almost entirely realised in in-situ cast concrete, of which the constructional acumen and attentiveness to detail are somewhat characteristic of all Atelier Branco’s architectural pursuits. Setting up practice in Sao Paulo in 2012, the two have, in fact, built up an enticing and significantly varied portfolio of which the content ranges from the careful crafting of furniture products and fittings, to the design of commercial showrooms and office spaces, to the construction of numerous residential projects scattered throughout Brazil in which their talent has, perhaps, best expressed itself in these few years.
 
 
Belonging to this later series, Casa Biblioteca is without doubt the most idiosyncratic of the bunch, both for the eccentricity of its client and the context it was born out of. It is, in fact, set atop of a steep north-facing terrain within a clearing of Vinhedo’s dense ‘mata atlantica’—the atlantic forest which extends over the larger part of Brazil’s littoral region. Due to the site’s topographical attributes, its design follows a distinctly ‘sectional’ rationale such that the spatial and functional disposition of the project is almost entirely articulated in the relation between two contour lines. In order of relevance, the first of these two lines consists in the line of the ground, of which the sloping profile has been manipulated to form a series of spacious horizontal terraces, fit for inhabitation; the second consists in the line of the roof, which ever so slightly hovers over the terrain’s uppermost retention wall to create a sharp, horizontal datum between the domesticated topography and the sky above it.
 
 
Ever a topos of Brazilian postwar architecture from Artigas to Mendes da Rocha, here too the concrete roof takes on a crucial role in the determination of the project both in the articulation of its program as in the characterisation of its outwards (and inwards) appearance. It is a 15 cm thin rectangular slab supported by eight long-limbed pillars which, albeit ‘basic’ in its formal resolution, distinguishes itself for the uncanny slenderness of its constitutive parts. When approaching the house from the main road, it is the upper face of this element that presents itself to the viewer offering access to a monumental viewing platform of ca. 20 by 10 meters, immersed within the foliage of the surrounding tree canopies. In place of a parapet, the deck is circled by a meter wide water bed which, in turn, defines a rectangular central island from which to contemplate the view. This latter is lined with finely cut Garapeira wood boards which meet diagonally against the deck’s symmetry line and point towards the horizon.
 
 
A dentil in the in the perimeter of the roof allows for a staircase to be fitted along its central access, leading down between two concrete walls into the house’s core space. This is an undivided, fully glazed, rectangular room hosting the entirety of the domestic program, of which the height gradually increases as one descends from the most intimate to the more exposed areas of the home. The retention walls which give its section the distinguished jagged profile are unique in height due to the uneven slope of the existing terrain, but spaced equally throughout to create neat tripartite structural system spanning 5.50 meters longitudinally from pillar to pillar, and terrace front to terrace front. Consequently, although equal in depth, the three terraces gain unique floor-to-ceiling heights providing the activities which take place on them with degrees of privacy and natural lighting conditions best suited to their needs. The sleeping areas are thus located onto the project’s uppermost terrace within an intimate and dimly lit, 2.35 meter tall space. This level overlooks the house’s central platform which measures 4.15 meters in height and hosts the client’s studio; it is the area of the house most directly connected to the landscape having two centrally placed glass doors located at either of its short sides (the doors also underline the project’s secondary axis of symmetry). Lastly, the terrace furthest from the house’s entrance is a living and dining area overlooking the surrounding greenery as if a loggia or a viewing deck; this is the brightest and most exposed area of the house, rising 1.25 meters from ground level and measuring 5.15 meters in height.
 
 
A similarly methodical approach informs the location of the core services and storage facilities required by the client which are either carved into the project’s retention walls—as is the case with the two bathrooms along first terrace wherein all elements are entirely realised in in-situ cast concrete and which, differently from all other areas of the home, are toplit and thus bare no visual connection whatsoever to the exterior—or fitted accurately against them—as with the kitchen elements, bookcases and wardrobes. As such, the space remains untethered from elements foreign to its ‘disegno’.
 
 
The neatness of the architectural layout, is even further corroborated in the positioning of the stairs. These, rather theatrically transverse the space along its central axis to loop symmetrically around the perimeter of the house under a concrete-paved, covered pathway. But perhaps, the most significant aspect in giving the project it\'s somewhat rudimentary grandeur is the selection and treatment of the materials deployed. The bare structure is realised entirely out of reinforced concrete and was cast under the direction of the architects within a single working day; the floors, as with the upper terrace, are lined with long and fine Garapeira wood boards placed perpendicular to the project’s longitudinal axis; and the whole is almost entirely wrapped within a single glazed facade of which the iron profiling and design motifs follow the iconic ‘paulistana’ tradition of the nineteen fifties. It is especially the care gone into the design of these latter elements that have made the fortune of the project of which the noble spareness could’ve easily been buried under the hideous chunkiness of modern-day aluminium frames. Instead, with its fine joinery and quasi-ethereal openness, the Casa Biblioteca consolidates its place amidst a rich tradition of glass houses and pavilions which since the dawn of twentieth century have almost persistently affirmed themselves as privileged sites of architectural experimentation.
 
 
A nitidez do layout arquitetônico é ainda mais corroborada no posicionamento das escadas. Estes, ao contrário, dividem teatralmente o espaço ao longo de seu eixo central para circular simetricamente ao redor do perímetro da casa sob um caminho de concreto e coberto pelo mesmo. Mas talvez, o aspecto mais significativo em dar ao projeto é a grandeza um tanto rudimentar, é a seleção e tratamento dos materiais implantados. A estrutura é realizada inteiramente em concreto armado e foi concretada sob a direção dos arquitetos em um único dia de trabalho; os pisos, assim como o terraço superior, são forrados com placas de madeira Garapeira longas e finas, colocadas perpendicularmente ao eixo longitudinal do projeto; e o todo é quase integralmente envolvido por uma única fachada envidraçada, da qual os motivos de perfis e design de ferro seguem a icônica tradição paulistana dos anos cinquenta.É especialmente o cuidado dedicado ao design desses últimos elementos que garantem a riqueza do projeto, da qual a nobreza poderia facilmente ser enterrada sob a grosseria dos caixilhos de alumínio modernos. Em vez disso, com sua fina marcenaria e abertura quase etérea, a Casa Biblioteca consolida seu lugar em meio a uma rica tradição de casas de vidro e pavilhões que desde o início do século XX se afirmaram quase persistentemente como locais privilegiados de experimentação arquitetônica.
 





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