欧洲南方天文台总部扩建(ESO Headquarters Extension) - Auer Weber Assoziierte

▲ 点击图片可查看大图,并可进入全屏图集模式 ▲


项目概况:
建筑设计:Auer Weber Assoziierte
位置:德国加兴(慕尼黑附近)(Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, 85748 Garching, Germany)
建筑面积:18736.0 平方米
时间:2013
照片版权:Aldo Amoretti

项目简介:
ESO(欧洲南半球天文学研究组织)是欧洲最重要的政府间天文学组织和世界上硕果最丰的天文观测台。ESO在智利有三个办公地点——拉西拉、帕瑞纳和拉诺德查南托——代表了15个成员州。ESO与国际合作伙伴一起建造了ALMA(阿塔卡马大型毫米/微米阵列),目前正在设计欧洲最大的望远镜(E-ELT)。

新的扩建建筑标志着ESO历史上的一个重要时刻,因为它将加兴所有的ESO员工集合在了同一个场地上,不但能促进员工间有价值的合作,还为ESO提供了一个技术环境,使其可以对最先进的设备进行组装、测试和升级。

这两栋建筑——一座是10300平方米的办公和会议大楼,另一座是2900平方米的技术大楼——以及周围环境的总面积比原ESO加兴总部的面积多一倍。

扩建建筑的设计是对原有建筑(建筑师:Fehling+ Gogel)的补充。办公大楼采用了类似的曲线形,拥有两个内庭院,充分利用了自然光源。技术大楼是一个圆柱状结构,直径与E-ELT主镜直径39米的尺寸相同。

两座新建筑都是绿色建筑,因为相较于同等规模的建筑,它们的能耗大大降低了。这是通过外立面的保温措施以及厚实的墙体与楼板保温实现的。办公楼通过混凝土核心活化作用采暖和制冷,使用的是地下水,地下水通过热泵送入管道。额外的热能由区域集中暖提供,采用地热加热的水。

建筑理念
目前的情况和设计目标
原有的ESO总部大楼位置突出,位于加兴研究园的南端,处在“Campusband”轴线的起点处。它因其独特的建筑设计而闻名,象征着在ESO内进行的宇宙科学研究。

建筑矗立在加兴的绿化带边缘,其优雅的曲线体现出景观与建筑之间的成功共生,它拥抱着自然环境,并形成一个个庭院空间。新建筑设计理念的关键特点是保留场地特色,重点突出交流氛围,保持与周围乡村的紧密联系。

设计理念
扩建建筑的设计理念考虑到了研究园南侧边界外的原有绿化带和原总部大楼外向的建筑风格。建筑师最终设计了开放而独立的建筑,无论在功能还是形式上都与原总部大楼融为一体,同时仍保留了主入口、接待处和公共区域的基本位置。由于新办公与会议大楼坐落在原总部大楼的南面,更加深入绿化带,因此建筑师将其设计成嵌入自然环境的结构。为了与原有建筑的绝大部分保持一致,除了朝向东南的两座环形五层办公楼以外,新建筑的高度均不超过三层。

原总部大楼以圆环形式为主要建筑元素,这种环境更有利于科学交流。这一设计元素被继续应用到了扩建新建筑中。原建筑由一系列开放的圆弧结构组成,面向周围的庭院开放,而新建筑则是一条由凹凸的圆环组成的连续带状结构,这些圆环围合出内部交通流线区域、交流区域和礼堂、会议室、自助餐厅这样的公共设施。

原总部大楼的主入口前是一条离地面约4m高的西北朝向的斜坡,这意味着进入建筑就直接到达了二层。一层主要是内部通道和装卸区。因此,新建筑的设计也将两个主要楼层抬高,使其“悬浮”于地面层之上。这两个主要楼层坐落在发挥结构和功能作用的建筑构件之上,这些构件内容纳了礼堂、装卸区、有顶的自行车和汽车停车场。地下室位于礼堂下方。为了避免超过地下水位,地下室面积被减少到了最小,既可以防止被淹,又可以减少防水混凝土结构的建筑成本。

入口和交通流线
主入口仍保留在原总部大楼内。内部连接桥连接起三座建筑——原总部大楼、办公扩建建筑和技术扩建建筑。车行道和扩建建筑的直接入口连接原建筑东北侧停车场的入口道路。这些道路围绕新的办公和会议大楼一层的功能区与结构区设置,呈圆形分布,上方是二层的楼板。这个入口包含一个出租车乘降区和一个单独的接待区,接待区也可用于举办国会、研讨会这样的大型会议。

内部组织
新建筑的礼堂、自助餐厅和议事厅位于原总部大楼的附近,从而形成了新ESO建筑场地布局的平衡点。围绕两个圆形庭院设置的二层和三层设有额外的交流区和阅读区,并且可以从这里看到外面的景色。其中一个庭院直径约为8.20米,与智利的帕瑞纳天文台大型VLT望远镜(Auer Weber在ESO的帕瑞纳天文台上设计了Residencia项目,荣获了2004年枫叶奖和2005年城市建筑评论奖)主镜的尺寸一样大。在建筑内随处可见相似参考尺寸的其他ESO望远镜。办公室(标准尺寸12.2平方米)设在办公楼的外环中,可以看到乡村的景色。更大一点18.2平方米的办公室和会议室设在两个内环内,面向庭院。

景观设计
原建筑与新办公楼之间种植着树木和草皮的区域的设计与ESO场地整体景观概念一致。新办公楼就好像是一个飘浮在原有景观上的结构,铺地被减到最小,绿色的草皮被尽可能地设置在离新建筑更近的地方。人行道和车行道表面由沥青铺成。其他的树木尊重场地特点——开放场地种植着密集的树林。只有几个被选定的地方(如入口区域)种植了树木,目的是建立视觉联系而非阻挡人们看向周围乡村的视线。

结构理念
二层和三层坐落在混凝土基座结构上。一层呈环形布局的倾斜混凝土柱支撑着二层楼板。建筑的基座覆盖石膏板,在一层形成具有雕塑感的空间,沿着建筑的布局而设。二层以柱子为基础的支撑结构、环形的楼板以及三层的剪力墙结构,共同使一层楼板实现了无柱的悬挑结构,因此提高了结构在一层上方飘浮的感觉。这一结构系统通过一种专门设计的系梁系统实现,系梁系统设在屋顶板上方,使得下面的楼板可以悬挂在建筑的屋顶板上。

外观
外观曲线形的扩建建筑为全玻璃立面,更让人觉得这是一个飘浮于地面之上的结构,结构由下方倾斜的带有覆层的支撑结构支撑。白天,原总部大楼和周围的乡村景色反射在折叠墙板立面上,形成一幅幅破碎的画面。到了晚上建筑内灯光亮起的时候,整个结构,包括全部高度和全部宽度,就会形成一条光带飘浮在地面之上,一直伸向星空。嵌入一层吊顶内的筒灯昏暗的光线更是增强了这种效果。因此,有那么短暂的一刹那,人们会觉得整座建筑就好像是一架即将起飞的飞碟。

(本文贡献方:archdaily,archgo;组织:树状模式)
From the architect. ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world\'s most productive astronomical observatory. ESO operates three sites in Chile — La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor — on behalf of its fifteen member states. Together with its international partners, ESO built ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) and is presently designing the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT).

The new annex marks an important moment in ESO’s history, as it brings the complete ESO staff in Garching together on one site, facilitating valuable collaboration, as well as providing a technical building for ESO’s most advanced instruments to be assembled, tested and upgraded.

These two buildings — an office and conference building of 10.300 square metres and a technical building of 2.900 square meters — and their surroundings cover more than double the current area of the ESO Garching Headquarters.

The extension was designed to complement the original building (Architects: Fehling+Gogel). The office building, implementing a similar curved shape, boasting two inner courtyards, makes extensive use of natural light sources. The technical building is a cylinder construction with a diameter the size of the 39-metre primary mirror of the E-ELT.

Both new buildings have been labelled green buildings due to the significantly lower energy consumption typical for buildings of this size. This is achieved with the well-insulated facade and intense wall and slab insulation. The office building is heated and cooled through concrete core activation — using ground water, which is fed into with a heat pump. Additional heat energy is supplied with district heating utilizing geothermally heated water.

Architectural Concept
Existing situation and design objective The existing ESO Headquarters building with its outstanding location on the southern fringe of the Garching Research Campus, lies at the starting point of the axis of the “Campusband”.The building is renowned f or its unique architectural design, which symbolizes the scientific study of the cosmos carried out at ESO.

The building stands alone at the edge of Garching’s green belt, and its elegant curves express a successful symbiosis between landscape and architecture, embracing the natural surroundings and forming individual courtyard spaces. Keeping the character of the site and emphasising the communicative atmosphere in close touch with the surrounding countryside form the key features for this design concept.

Design concept
The architectural concept for the extension buildings takes into account both the established green belt beyond the southern border of the research campus and the extrovert character of the existing headquarters building. The result is open and individual buildings that blend both functionally and formally with the existing headquarters, while still respecting its prime position with the main entrance, reception and public areas. Since the new office and conference building is located south of the existing headquarters and therefore reaches even further into the green belt, it was conceived as a structure embedded in its natural surroundings. In keeping with the majority of the existing building, the height of the new buildings does not exceed three storeys other than the two five-storey office rings towards the southeast.

The circle form is the dominating architectural component in the existing headquarters building. In this context it refers to scientific communication and this design element is overtaken and transformed into the extension building. While the existing building is composed of a series of open arcs opening out into the surrounding countryside, the new building forms a continuous band of convex and concave circles that enclose inner circulation zones, communication zones and public facilities such as the auditorium, council room and cafeteria.

The main entrance to the existing headquarters is via a ramp from the northwest at a height of about 4 metres above ground, meaning one enters the building through the first floor. The ground floor is mainly used for internal access and delivery. Therefore, the new building is conceived with its two main floors floating above ground level. These two main floors rest on structural and functional building elements, which contain the auditorium, delivery areas, covered bicycle and car parks. The basement is located below the auditorium complex. In order to avoid breaching the ground water level, the basement areas are reduced to the required minimum in order to avoid the risk of flooding and reduce waterproof concrete structures building costs.

Access and circulation
The main entrance was retained in the existing headquarters building. The internal bridge connects the three buildings – the existing building with the office and technical extension buildings. Car access and the direct entrance to the extension building are provided via the access road to the parking spaces, northeast of the existing building. These are arranged in a ring form around the functional and structural parts of the building on the ground floor of the new office and conference building, covered by the first floor’s slab of the building. This entrance includes a taxi drop-off zone and a separate reception, which can also be used for major events such as congresses or seminars.

Internal organisation
The auditorium, cafeteria and council room of the new building are situated in the area next to the existing building and thereby form the balance point of the new ESO site layout. Additional communication zones with reading areas are arranged on both upper floors around the two circular cutouts with views to the outside. One of these cutouts, with a diameter of 8.20 metres, has exactly the same dimensions as the large VLT mirrors at the Paranal Observatory in Chile (Auer Weber designed the Residencia at ESO’s Paranal Observatory, which was awarded the 2004 LEAF Award and the 2005 Cityscape Architectural Review Award). Similar reference dimensions to other telescopes of the ESO fleet can be found throughout the buildings. Offices (12 m2 standard size) are placed in the outer ring of the office building and have views to the countryside. Larger 18 m2 offices, as well as the meeting rooms, are located in the two inner rings with views to the courtyards.

Landscape design
The planted areas between the existing building and the new office building are developed in accordance with the overall ESO site-landscaping concept. The new office building appears as a structure floating above the existing landscape, paved surfaces were kept to a minimum and green surfaces — lawn or grassland, were brought as close as possible to the new building. Paved paths for pedestrians and car access roads were made from asphalt with a ground surface. The planting of additional trees respects the character of the site where open fields meet densely wooded areas. Trees were planted in a few selected areas (e.g., in the entrance area) to determine visual sight lines rather than to obstruct the view of the surrounding countryside.

Structural concept
The first and second floors rest on a concrete base construction. Circularly arranged inclined concrete columns on the ground floor support the first floor slab. The base of the building is clad with plasterboard that forms sculpted spaces on the ground floor level following the lines of the layout of the building. A column based support structure on the first floor level and the circular floor slab combined with a shear wall construction used on the second floor, allow a wide column-free cantilever for the ground floor slab, thus enhancing the perception of a structure floating above ground level. This structural system is balanced through a specifically developed tie-beam system on top of the roof slab which enables the cantilever of the lower slabs to, metaphorically, hang from the building’s roof slab.

Appearance
The curved shape of the extension building with its fully glazed fa?ade provides the illusion of a structure floating above ground on its inclined clad supports. During daylight the existing headquarters and the surrounding countryside are reflected as fractured images through the shingled-folded facade. In the evening when the building is lit from inside, the complete structure in its full height and width, it optically provides a band of light floating aboveground reaching towards the stars. This is enhanced with the dim illumination from the embedded down lights in the suspended ceiling of the ground floor. Then, for a brief moment, the building appears as a flying saucer ready to lift off.





▲ 点击图片可查看大图,并可进入全屏图集模式 ▲





















已邀请:

要发表您的看法,请先登录