项目概况:
建筑设计: Pitagoras Arquitectos
位置: 葡萄牙(5370 Mirandela, Portugal)
主持建筑师: Fernando Seara de Sá, Raul Roque Figueiredo, Alexandre Coelho Lima, Manuel Luís Vilhena Roque
时间: 2012年
照片版权: João Morgado

项目简介:
Terra Quente医院位于城市边缘靠近火车站和巴士站的地方,它距离部分市政设施也不远,例如游泳池设施。同时它离一些私营实体也很近,例如皮亚杰学院。这块场地地势较高,可以俯瞰全城。基地可以描述为一个南部斜坡被切削后的平台,这里曾经是一个由一系列房屋组成的老化肥厂。场地的条件也决定了建筑的层次,使其分成两个明显不同的体块——其中一个沿着场地的最大部分在一至两层之间变化,在这上面包含着住房咨询室、手术室、病房、深度治疗和高级病房,还有必要的技术区域。

新医院的方案设想,试图满足当地一些多元化及配套服务的需求。它与其他类似的设备运行在同一线上,因为它们的相似性可以提供额外的响应,从而拓宽了医疗服务的报价问题。除了实际的医院,它还有持续治疗病房和高级住院部,它们占据了建筑的上面两层并有一个凸显的入口。此外,在这层楼和二层之间的入口连接的地方是门诊咨询室和手术室。首层主要设置为理疗和其手术室的技术区域。在首层的其它空间,主要入口的位置通常用于互补领域如侧重于诊断的永久性门诊单元,包括影像学,和对儿科、妇科/产科门诊的护理。该项目还设有行政区域、主入口和公共餐厅,休息区和商店,以及医院所需的所有技术支持功能区域。

如前所述,该方案被理解为两个在一对翅膀上的体块,加上另外一个不明显的、主要承载技术支持区域的体块。设计的每个步骤都是为了使内外环流更加明确,同时满足整个项目工程的最简原则。总的说来,我们通常把该建筑描述为一个由基础支撑着上面四层体块的结构主体 。两个主体之间的第五层承载着技术功能区域,提供了过渡到上层翅膀的体量。建筑所有的垂直及水平元素都用垂直形式的电梯和楼梯所连接。

一个建筑的最后形式及表现方法永远都是最重要的,这决定于该建筑的使用者、这座城市和整片土地的使用者如何看待它。因此,建筑被设想为有着其突出的公共语言、尺度和性格,独特而鲜明,这体现在该建筑紧凑而清晰的体量上。外立面的处理和表达也是为了使Quente医院在建筑群体中脱颖而出,成为城市背景下的标识。

虽然第一种方法似乎表明建筑被分成上面所说的一上一下的两个体块,分别对应于不同领域的内容,外立面的混凝土统一着色,目的是为了协调同时减少基地体块间的张力。这是通过上部体块的外立面波纹片和环绕建筑物外立面的连续线形开窗,以减轻建筑体量,并使其更有活力。此外,作为该地区使用的医疗机构,该建筑从乡村道路上看的时候还应该是显而易见并具有地方特色的。该建筑的方案制定和功能使得建筑在将来可以通过添加相似的模块组合进行中心配置,即西边部分。这就为建筑提供了必要的灵活性,使得建筑的未来发展更具开放性。

该项目的方案和建设过程是齐头并进的,方案使用钢筋混凝土结构,以及通过钢筋混凝土外墙热粘土块支撑固体板或丝状板,而正立面由保温层和外部饰面构成。建筑的外装饰材料有混凝土,波纹板和玻璃,采用这些材料的原因除了前面提到的之外,还因为其耐用性和抗老化的能力,同时它们还实现了通风幕墙的建设,这会给其他专业的技术解决方案提供必要的能源节约。这是由划分内部空间与石膏板墙壁所决定的,这个系统提供了必要的各种类型的隔音之间的兼容性,无论是在隔室之间的绝缘亦或是它们内部设置,也使得在将来作出任何更换时更容易进行。

(本文贡献方:archdaily,iarch;组织:树状模式)
From the architect. The land for the new Terra Quente Hospital lies within the city perimeter close to the railway station and the bus station and not far from a number of recent facilities, either developed by the municipality, the case of the swimming-pool complex, for instance, or by private entities, the case of Instituto Piaget. The plot of land is located at high level in a lofty position overlooking the city. It can be described as a platform that was formerly occupied by an old fertilizer plant, and which was the result of a cutting made on the south slope, the site of collective housing at a higher level. The criterion for the location also conditioned the volumetry of the building and its distribution into two clearly perceptible volumes – one varying between one and two storeys which develops along the largest part of the plot, with two volumes placed longitudinally above it, housing the consulting rooms, operating rooms and inpatients rooms, the continued care unit and the senior residence, in addition to the requisite technical areas.

The programme of the new hospital envisages a number of diversified and complementary services in an attempt to meet local needs. It operates on line with other similar equipments which due to their proximity can provide an additional response and thus broadens the health care offer in question. In addition to the actual hospital, it has a continued care unit and a senior residence, he atter occupying the two upper floors of the building and presenting a separate entrance. Furthermore, admissions are immediately below this floor and Level 2 houses he outpatients’ consulting room and the operating rooms. Level 1 is set aside for hysiotherapy and the technical area for the sub-station of said operating rooms. The remaining spaces on Level 0, site of the main entrance, are for use, naturally, by complementary reas such as a permanent outpatients unit which focuses on diagnostic ests, including imagiology, and on outpatient care in paediatrics and gynaecology/ obstetrics. The programme also envisaged administrative areas, main entrance, at endance and public use – restaurant, seating areas and shops – as well as all technical nd support areas needed for the hospital to function.

The realisation of this programme was translated into an apparent volumetry distributed on two wings, as mentioned earlier, plus a third, that is not apparent and mainly houses technical and support areas. Every attempt was made to ensure that internal and external circulations were as clear as possible and also met the principles of compositive simplicity which inform the entire project. In generic terms, we could describe the building as being structured with a main body that constitutes the base supporting the upper volume on four storeys, one storey being set back. Between these two bodies, a fifth storey houses the technical area and provides the volumetric transition to the upper wing. All have horizontal, linear circulations united by vertical circulations in the form of lifts and stairs.

the final form and the architectural expression of the building will always be important, that is, how it is seen by users – users of the building, of the city and of the territory and how they will assess its image. A priority, therefore, was that the building should assume an eminently public language, cale and character, that is unique and clearly identifiable. This was expressed in a compact, clearly formulated volumetry which is obviously reflected in the finishes. The treatment and the expression of the facades were designed to contribute to this aim of making the Terra Quente Hospital stand out from the built context, transforming it into a reference in the urban context. Whilst a first approach appears to show that the building is divided into the abovementioned volumes – upper and lower – corresponding to the different programmatic contents, the treatment and finish of the facades in uniformly coloured apparent concrete, confirms the attempt to unify and diminish the tension between the volumes of the base. This is reinforced by cladding the facades of the upper volume in prelacquered corrugated sheets and by creating lines of continuous windows around the building, achieved by linking the fenestration to sheets of glass that lighten this dimension and make it more vibrant, eliminating most of the impact of the volumetry. The aim is that, as a health care facility for regional use, the building should be visible and identifiable from the country roads. The architectural formulation and the functional resolution of the programme allow the building to be reconfigured in the future by adding similar modules in terms of composition and volumetry, namely in the west sector. This provides the necessary versatility, leaving it open to directions for its development.

The structural and building processes go hand in hand, and a structure in reinforced concrete was selected, using solid slabs – or fungiform slabs – supported on pillars and on the reinforced concrete outer walls, or thermal clay blocks which, once the thermal insulation and the external finishes have been applied, constitute the constructive system of the facades. The exterior finishing materials: apparent concrete, corrugated sheets and glass, in addition to the factors mentioned earlier, were chosen for their durability and ageing capacity but also because they allowed the realisation of a constructive process – ventilated fa ade – that jointly with the technical solutions of other specialities provides the requisite energy savings in the building. It was decided to divide the inner spaces with walls of plasterboard sheets. This system provides the requisite compatibility between the various types of acoustic insulation foreseen, both in the insulation between compartments, and in their internalm arrangement, as well as making any replacements easier to carry out.
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