法国巴黎科学和生物多样性小学(Primary School For Sciences And Biodiversity) - Chartier Dalix Architectes

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项目概况:
建筑设计:Chartier Dalix Architectes
地址:法国巴黎(Boulogne-Billancourt, France)
建筑面积:6766 平方米
场地面积:5164平方米
时间:2014
照片版权:P. Guignard, Cyrille Weiner, David Foessel
造价:18,799,869 欧元(税前)
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项目简介:
这是一个结合科学与物种多样性的小学设计。 这个项目是一个特殊创新计划的一部分。建筑的设计概念基于一个主要景观,而这个主要景观的材质与组件其实是从项目所在地的更广泛的大环境中抽取出来的。因此项目成为了一个与众不同的城市飞地:一个能让本地环境自由发展的架空景观,就像一个庇护着人们的城市天蓬,而人们也反过来爱护着它。这个项目中,建筑的挑战是要再造一个功能齐全的生态系统,来作为一个学习的场所,一个能让当地的孩子们发挥他们的潜能的空间,同时也是一个当地居民的社交聚点。

文脉
项目包括两个结构:一个十八班学校(七个学前班教室,十一个小学教室)和一个向当地居民开放的体育馆。这个设计项目坐落于现在已具有相当高建筑密度的A4 Est基地,因此它具有特别的意义:它将为所属的更广大的地区设定景观基调。两个结构统一到一个空间里,并且由一个叫做“矿物墙”的相同的表皮包裹着。我们希望这堵墙能够围绕着整个项目延伸,这不但整合了整个建筑,并且也代表着ZAC区域明确的姿态。这个位于A4 Est中心地点的建筑就是这座岛屿的“绿色心脏”。因此在这个植物和动物为区域重新发展发挥着重要指导作用的景观当中,这所学校起到了作为一个联合元素的功能。

生态墙
这个项目的“树皮”——生态墙是由预制混凝土块做成的。这些混凝土块呈现了两种不同材质。其可见的一面是光滑的,打磨过的,它反射着光线。而另一面则是肋状的,并且具有粗糙和凹凸不平的质感,整个融为一面单墙。这两种不同的表面有助于把水流引导向混凝土块的一面,因此避免水顺着可见面流下来而使其过早老化。两种材质的对比不但强调了立面的深度,也增强了其浮雕效果。在较低的部分,大概在两米的高度上,独立式墙体进行了平滑处理或者向外倾斜,已防止外来者包括一些潜在的野兽进入。墙体侧面上的凹槽能让植被在其表面生长;而一小较小的凹陷和褶皱则是提供给动物的,例如很适合一些不同的鸟类在这里筑巢。

屋顶
高于体育馆上空的十二米之处的屋顶是一个真正的空中花园。这里同时也是三层植被的家园。中生代植物草原种植于土壤里的五十厘米处,一条灌木带和一个林地岛种植于土壤里的一米深处。由植物群创造的生态走廊的连续性使不同物种之间获得了自然交流。这个架空花园有两个功能:其一,对于墙体以及花园自己的动物群来说,这里都提供了丰富的供给,从而确保了生物多样性的延续。其二,花园也改善了北部办公楼以及南部公寓楼里的生活环境,提供了一个空中景观。

项目
该项目提供了一个混合方案,建立了学校,体育馆,而且还集成了第三个元素:促进生态多样性。考虑到这三种元素对于空间和体量各有不同的限制,我们决定把重点放在空间的满与空之间联系的流动性上,特别是在不同的地形高度之上。这些联系为各种元素提供了一个逻辑顺序:直接而严谨的支持性教学空间进入与室外游玩空间的对话之中,这些室外空间具有灵活可变的轮廓,而这些轮廓又受到一个更有趣且可达的景观化过程的影响,包括视觉上的连续性。

(本文贡献方:archdaily,gooood(译);组织:树状模式)
From the architect. A primary school and gymnasium with their own natural environment The project has been designed as part of a particularly innovative programme, environmentally speaking. The concept of the building relies on the development of a primary landscape which would draw its textures and components from the wider landscape in which it is set. In this way it becomes an urban enclave which stands apart: an elevated landscape in which an indigenous environment grows freely, a sort of urban canopy, sheltered, but also protected by people.

This project may well signal the start of a new trend: striving to return biodiversity to the heart of urban areas. More than any other project, building a school is an opportunity to re-think the fundamental conceptual connections between poetry, education and nature, drawing inspiration from new aesthetic impulses. Thus, the building takes up the challenge of recreating a fully functional eco-system as a place of learning, a space where local children will go to fulfil their potential, but also a social hub for local residents.

The Context: The project involves two structures: a school with eighteen classrooms (seven pre-school, eleven primary school) and a gymnasium which will be open to local residents. Located on the A4 Est site, in the “Seguin-Rives de Seine” ZAC (urban development zone) in Boulogne-Billancourt on the old Renault grounds, now a densely built area. The school project thus takes on particular significance: it will set the tone for the landscape within the wider site.

The two structures are united in a single volume, bounded by a same skin: the mineral wall. We wanted this wall to extend around the entire project first to consolidate the entire edifice, but also because it represents a clear and definite gesture for the ZAC. This building, at the centre of the A4 Est site, is the “green heart” of the island. The school thus serves as a unifying element in a landscape where which flora and fauna play a vital part in guiding re-development for the rest of the area.

The Concept: This project is a “landscape as living space” rather than a simple building. There are two distinct parts to the building: a mineral section – the facades – and a section made of plants – the roof. This envelope wraps itself around the school, a general volume with smooth contours and supple lines, revealing fluid interior spaces and elastic exterior ones, avoiding ruptures between volumes.

The highly compact building opens onto the neighbourhood, offering a multitude of perspectives. The playgrounds are two outdoor spaces in conversation, in plain view of one another, gaining the measure of one another (one day the pre-school children will be in primary school). The entire building shelters a primitive natural environment which acts as a more or less long-term catalyst for biodiversity at the heart of the larger site. Indeed, this structure is alive in that its appearance changes. Through its function as a foundation for the landscape, it presents an envelope which will be different in five or ten years’ time, with all the uncertainty of nature, which does not necessarily appear where one might expect…

The Living Wall: The “bark” of the project, the living wall, is made of pre-fabricated blocks of concrete. These blocks present two different types of texture. The visible side is smooth, polished, it reflects the light. The other sides are ribbed, with a rough, rugged texture, melded into a single wall. This difference in surfaces helps to channel water towards the sides of blocks, thus avoiding trickling on the visible side and premature ageing. The opposition of these two textures also emphasizes the depth of the facade and enhances its relief.

On the lower section, and up to a height of around two metres, the freestanding wall is smoothed or slopes outwards, barring access to outsiders but also potential predators. The indentations of the side faces of the wall also encourage vegetation (bowls for ferns, rough concrete for mousse); small hollows and folds are aimed at animals (overhangs for swallows, porous nooks for insects) and act as an invitation to nesting for several varieties of bird. The staggering of the blocks increases the types of potential habitat for the different species expected on the site. Nest boxes have been inserted into the concrete blocks. Their dimensions have been designed for species such as kestrels, bats, robin redbreasts, redstarts, common swifts, starlings or swallows.

The Roof: The roof is a real hanging garden, twelve metres above the gymnasium. It is home to three levels of vegetation: A prairie of mesophilus plants planted in 50 centimetres of earth, a shrub-land fringe and a woodland island planted in 1 meter of earth. The continuity of environmental corridors created by flora enables natural communication between species. This elevated garden has two functions: first, for the fauna of the wall and for its own fauna, it is rich in resources (additional living habitats, nutrition, etc.) ensuring the success of biodiversity. It also contributes to improved living conditions in the office building to the north and apartments to the south, presenting an elevated landscape.

The Project: The project presents a mixed programme to build a school, a gymnasium, but also incorporate a third element: encouraging biodiversity. With distinct constraints in terms of volume and space for these three elements, we have decided to focus on the fluidity of connections between full and empty spaces and especially between different topographical levels.

These connections provide a logical order for the various elements: the straightforward, rigorous and supportive teaching spaces enter into conversation with outdoor play spaces with flexible contours which are systematically subject to a more playful accessible landscaping process, one involving visual continuity. The gymnasium rises to a height of twelve metres, while the school is mostly on the ground and first floors, and then rises progressively to the third floor for the primary school.





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