项目概况:
建筑设计:Benthem Crouwel Architects, MVSA Architects, West 8
地址:荷兰,鹿特丹(Stationsplein 1, 3013 AJ Rotterdam, Netherlands)
主持建筑师:Jan Benthem, Marcel Blom, Adriaan Geuze, Jeroen van Schooten
面积:46000.0 平方米
时间:2013
照片版权:Jannes Linders, Rijksoverheid, Team CS, Gemeenten Rotterdam
该项目获得2015年当代建筑欧洲联盟奖—密斯·凡·德·罗奖提名

项目简介:
来自于建筑事务所的描述:鹿特丹中央火车站是荷兰最重要的交通枢纽之一。该中央火车站每天客流量可达110000人次,与阿姆斯特丹史基浦机场齐平。除了连接欧洲的高速列车(HST)网络,鹿特丹中央火车站还连接到轻轨铁路系统(RandstadRail)。随着HST和RandstadRail的开通,鹿特丹中央火车站的日客流量到2025年预计将增加至约323000人次。

鹿特丹HST是火车从南行驶入荷兰的第一站,也是欧洲中部战略性的一个站点,距史基浦机场仅20分钟,到巴黎也只有两个半小时的路程。因此,与旧火车站相比,新的车站将更加宽敞、明亮,并更加有序,同时非常具有国际范儿;它不仅提高了高速列车站点的效率,而且是鹿特丹城市发展和更新的雄心壮志的完美补充。该车站结合实用性,容纳率,舒适性和吸引力等各个方面,还与马德里、巴黎、伦敦和布鲁塞尔的中央火车站一起构成交通网络。

鹿特丹中央火车站的最大挑战之一是车站北部和南部城市特征的差异。火车站的北部入口采用适度常规的设计,适合北部城市Provenierswijk的特点以及小流量的乘客出入。入口处外挑,逐渐与城市相连接。Provenierswijk充满了19世纪的荷兰小镇的特点,为了维持城市特色,会尽量避免修建大型建筑,车站周边的环境通过园林绿化得到改善,车站也被设计成透明的。

相比之下,城市另一边的主入口则显然是通往高层林立的城市中心的门户。整个候车大厅由木材料和玻璃构成,符合车站都市化、国际化的定位。大厅的屋顶完全用不锈钢材料覆盖,强化了建筑的标志性形象,并直指城市中心。

鹿特丹中央车站具备适宜的结构和规模,相对于整个城市景观来说它在城市尺度以及人类感官尺度之间寻找到了一个平衡点。鹿特丹市通过围绕在车站周边密集的小规模的城市结构从而将人流引向新车站。整个铁路区域成为了城市的一部分。车站成为了城市新的风景线并且模糊了工作区和生活区的边界,组成了更为美好的城市结构,并且将大大提高居民生活质量和车站的周边环境。

车站前面的步行大道是一个连续的公共空间。为了实现这个简单的目标,设计师将可容纳750辆汽车和5200辆自行车的停车场置于广场地下。有轨电车车站搬到中央车站的东部,而且电车车站平台的存在还拓宽了整个广场。公共汽车、电车、出租车的停车点以及临时停车区都集中在现有的城市结构当中,所以不构成障碍。车站红色石头的铺地一直延续到站前广场,将城市与车站融合在一起。步行道和自行车路线由于没有障碍而变得令人愉快并且安全,抵达鹿特丹的旅客可以感受到来自整个城市的尊重,并且不会受到交通堵塞的影响。

内部装饰和立面设计
车站的设计充分结合了自然光,太阳光的温暖和现代的外观是本次设计的重要元素。站台的屋顶,朝Proveniers的一边是透明的。当火车驶进车站,乘客会有一种被车站逐渐笼罩的切实感受。进入高而明亮的中央大厅,旅客可以纵观整个车站,还可以看到正在月台下等待的列车。

大厅的内部为木质结构,结合平台顶部的木质梁结构,打造了一种温暖而热情的氛围,无形中增加了游客的逗留时间。大面积的玻璃顶结构长达250米,覆盖了所有轨道。屋顶的玻璃板通过利用不同模式的太阳能电池而产生不同的透光水平,在平台上投射出不断变化的迷人的阴影效果。

流线和布局
车站的流线合理又具有逻辑性;旅客可以在大厅直接看到等待的列车,也可以受穿过透明屋顶洒向游客通道的阳光的指引。透明的屋顶,扩大了游客通道的空间,与周围的商业功能区相得益彰,使车站自然融入城市。自动扶梯、电梯和楼梯通向新站台,站台上配备了舒适的家具。车站西边的轨道上方架设有为换乘旅客设计的人行天桥。这个人行天桥同时也作为紧急情况下的逃生路线。

客运站同时连接着火车、电车、公共汽车和地铁,不仅是国家级的交通中心更是一个国际交通枢纽。公共交通枢纽是专为乘客的舒适出行而服务的,这样的宗旨在车站中随处可见。它涵盖了商业空间、一个休息室、餐厅、办公室、汽车和自行车的停车场。在宽敞的大厅中,客运服务功能都是以保证游客的方便为前提而安排:有旅游信息、一个游客咨询中心、荷兰铁路(NS)旅游网点、自动售票机和商业功能。在大型咖啡馆和游客休息室内,游客可以看到整个大厅和相邻轨道的壮观景色。大厅的等候区和游客通道为游客提供了信息浏览和快速购物的服务功能。

新的鹿特丹中央火车站是愉快的、开放而透明的公共交通枢纽,并作为一个标志性的交汇点。作为城市网络的重要一环,车站融合着城市的不同特点并标志着鹿特丹文化轴的起点。这个现代和高效的建筑给来往于这个港口城市的游客提供了他们现在或未来想要和需要的舒适和便利。

可持续性
车站屋顶面积达28000平方米,130000块装置有太阳能电池板的玻璃覆盖了其中的10000平方米。这是在荷兰最大的车站屋顶太阳能应用项目,也是欧洲最大的屋顶太阳能项目之一。考虑到鹿特丹中央火车站周围的高层建筑的影响,太阳能电池放置在屋顶照射到最多的阳光的部分。根据玻璃面板透光率不同时,会使用不同模式的太阳能电池。屋顶阳光照射最充足的地方,太阳能电池板安装的密度就最大。屋顶上的太阳能电池板还有较高的透明度,所以能够保证站内有足够的采光。太阳能电池的使用使火车站的二氧化碳的排放量减少了8%。而且这些太阳能电池预计每年将产生320兆瓦的能量,足够为100户家庭提供能源。

(本文贡献方:archdaily,iarch;组织:树状模式)
From the architect. Rotterdam Centraal Station is one of the most important transport hubs in The Netherlands. With 110,000 passengers a day the public transport terminal has as many travelers as Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. In addition to the European network of the High Speed Train (HST), Rotterdam Centraal is also connected to the light rail system, RandstadRail. With the advent of both the HST and RandstadRail the number of daily travelers at Rotterdam Centraal is expected to increase to approximately 323,000 by 2025.

Rotterdam HST is the first stop in the Netherlands when travelling from the south and is strategically positioned in the middle of Europe, with Schiphol only twenty minutes and Paris a mere two and a half hours away. Hence the new station is not only larger, brighter and more orderly than the former, but also has an international feel; it beautifully complements both the efficiency of the Hispeed stop and the Rotterdam city’s bold ambitions for urban development and renewal. The station matches in all respects the practicality, capacity, comfort and allure, of the central stations of Madrid, Paris, London and Brussels.

Integration in Urban Environment
One of the fundamental challenges of Rotterdam Centraal station was the difference in the urban character of the north and south side of the station. The entrance on the north side has a modest design, appropriate to the character of the neighborhood Provenierswijk and the smaller number of passengers. The entrance gradually connects to the city. In the Provenierswijk the character of the 19th-century Dutch provincial town is strengthened. Large architectural extensions are avoided on this side of the station, the presence of green is ameliorated and the station is transparent.

In contrast, the grand entrance on the city side is clearly the gateway to the high-rise urban center. Here the station derives its new international, metropolitan identity from the hall made of glass and wood. The roof of the hall, fully clad with stainless steel, gives rise to building’s iconic character and points to the heart of the city.

Now Rotterdam Centraal has the appropriate structure and dimensions for the urban landscape; it is in balance with the heights that characterize the metropolis and simultaneously reflects the human scale. The city of Rotterdam is drawn to the new station via the compaction of the small-scale urban texture surrounding the public transport terminal. The entire railway zone becomes one with the city. This finer urban texture with new sightlines and a mixture of living and working will dramatically improve the quality of life and the environment of the station area.

The esplanade in front of the station is a continuous public space. To achieve this simplicity a parking garage for 750 cars and a bicycle shed for 5,200 bicycles are located under the square. The tram station is moved to the east side of the station, so the platforms broaden the square. Bus, tram, taxi and the area for short-term parking are integrated into the existing urban fabric and do not constitute barriers. The red stone of the station floor continues into the forecourt, merging the station with the city. Pedestrian and cycling routes are pleasant and safe and arriving travelers now have dignified entrance to the city, free from traffic.

Interior and Appearance
Incorporation of natural light, the warmth of the sun’s rays and a modern look are important elements in the design. The platform roof on the Proveniersside is transparent. When the train drives into the station, there is an almost tangible feeling of being enshrouded in the station building. Upon entering in the bright high hall through the center side, the traveler gets an overview of the entire complex and a view to the trains that are waiting invitingly along the platforms.
The wood finish on the inside of the hall, combined with the structural wooden beams of the platform roof creates a warm and welcoming ambience, inviting visitors to linger. The largely transparent roof structure which covers all the tracks over a length of 250 meters, flood the platforms with light. The glass plates of the roof vary the level of light transmittance by utilizing different solar cells patterns, which produce an ever-changing and fascinating play of shadows on the platforms.

Routing and Layout
The routing through the station is logical; travelers are guided by a direct view of the trains and by the daylight that penetrates to the traveler’s passage via the voids that extend through the transparent roof platform and down to the stairs. Because of its transparency the widened traveler’s passage, lined with commercial functions, forms a natural part of the station. Escalators, lifts and stairs lead up to the new platforms, which feature inviting and comfortable platform furniture. On the west side of the station there is a footbridge over the tracks for travelers in transit. This footbridge also functions as an escape route in the event of an emergency.

The passenger terminal is a national and international hub that connects train, tram, bus and subway. The public transport terminal is designed for passenger comfort, which is visible in the different zones of the station. It includes commercial spaces, a lounge, restaurants, offices, parking for cars and bicycles. In the spacious concourse the passenger service functions are conveniently arranged. There is travel information, an information point, the Dutch Railways (NS) travelers shop, ticket vending machines and commercial functions. The grand cafe and the NS-lounge offer spectacular views across the hall and the adjacent tracks. Waiting areas in the hall and the passage are linked to the passenger flows, with areas both for browsing and quick shopping.

The new Rotterdam Centraal Station is a pleasant, open and transparent public transport terminal which functions as an iconic meeting point. Interwoven into the urban network, the station connects the diverse characters of the city and marks the beginning of Rotterdam’s cultural axis. This modern and efficient building offers travelers to and from the port city all the amenities and comfort they could want or need in the present and the future.

Sustainability
Windows with 130,000 solar cells cover 10,000 m2 of the total roof area of 28,000 m2. This is the largest application of solar energy in a station roof in The Netherlands and is also one of the largest rooftop solar projects in Europe. The solar cells are placed on the parts of the roof that get the most sun, taking into account the high buildings around Rotterdam Centraal. The glass panels vary in light transmittance by using different patterns in the solar cells. Where the roof has the greatest efficiency in terms of sunlight, the cell density is the highest. The solar cells that are integrated in the roof have a high degree of transparency, so there is ample light. The solar cells represent an 8% reduction in the station’s CO2 emissions. The cells are expected to generate 320 megawatt per annum, which is enough energy for 100 households.
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