澳大利亚植物银行(Australian Plant Bank) - BVN Donovan Hill

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鳍状结构减轻了太阳辐射
鳍状结构减轻了太阳辐射
项目概况:
建筑设计:BVN Donovan Hill
地址:澳大利亚 新南威尔士 安南山(Mount Annan, NSW, Australia)
主持建筑师:Alex Chaston
时间:2013
耗资: $19.8 m AUD
地域面积: 3,000 平方米
照片版权: John Gollings

项目简介:
坐落于Mount Annan的澳大利亚植物银行是隶属于皇家植物园和区域托管机构的一座科研设施。

项目设计响应了设计要求以及周围的自然环境。设计要求是建造一座具有双重功能的大楼,首先是用于研究澳大利亚本土的种子并储藏这些种子,其次要通过公共解说和展览活动来揭示研究成果。

自然环境影响了建筑的外形,建筑的北部融入了濒临灭绝的坎伯兰平原森林;从森林的自然特色过渡到内部庭院的栽培景观,建筑物如实地反应了这片相融的景观。过渡景观与建筑之间的对话暗喻了澳大利亚的居间土地与耕地。

在“场所”的体验当中,景观显得十分突出。在以参与者与景观的关系为主导的前提下,建筑的入口也融入了景观当中。从建筑的东翼楼下方走过,名义上是从地下穿过,建筑物朝向北部弯曲,朝向现存的森林,与场地相融。访客走向前门,可参与联系外部庭院与内部研究的解说展示。

从东部翼楼下方进入植物银行“领域”内,代表着建成结构与自然形式相融的开始——入口处的反光底面倒映出地面上的小路,青苔花园采用了从拆毁的悉尼建筑中抢救回来的剩余块状砂岩,为从别处移植来的青苔提供栖息地——象征性地将曾经成型的城市砂岩块复原成它原本的自然风貌(尽管存在人工痕迹)。

对于建成景观的叙述暗示了一种“在治理中的”社会化文化——这种模式随着庭院在视觉上融入北部的自然森林而有所减少。

建筑的表现方式源自于建成形式与土地的这种深入的关联——混凝土基座名义上是抽象的土地;抛光不锈钢板冲淡、模糊了人工与自然环境之间的界限;可开关的百叶窗带来了混合模式的通风,外面用不锈钢防火网密封;而建筑的形式无论从平面上还是建筑表现上都对其自然环境表达了尊敬。

在建筑内部,访客小路沿着安装了透明玻璃的实验室而设计,这里有聚焦实验室内部活动的外部解说材料。访问的高潮部分就在平面设计的最高点,这里有一间多功能室,可举办研讨会和各种活动。

研究人员与工作人员的工作场地是一个复合型的环境。内部装修在选择上就是要能衔接建筑的不同特色——实验室和解说区域在视觉上与工作场地明显不同,工作场地用木材设计,是一处较为柔和的工作环境。

经过森林通往“失窃的一代”的小路,植物银行的访客能沉浸在更广阔的植物园环境中。

可持续性
植物银行的可持续性设计延续了建筑物和这个地区与其自然环境的相融。建筑在平面上朝向北侧弯曲,尽量将最大面积的访客立面置于自然光线下,自然光线又在一面能遮阳的高墙下得到调节。这面墙的高度也便于公共区域和工作场地的玻璃百叶窗针对气候的不同而进行开关控制。在工作场地中,平面设计从东向西都是开放的,确保一年中大部分时间都有对流通风。这种混合模式让建筑物更少地依赖于机械发电,从而极大地减少了能耗。

在东部翼楼下方安装了一座热学迷宫,减少了暖通空调的负荷,也扩充了自然通风面积,尤其在夏季,通宵预冷的新鲜空气在室内流通,排出热空气。该系统的设计是为了通过采集日间的热量或夜间的冷空气,并保存在周围迷宫结构的混凝土、土地和基岩中,来降低极端环境气候的最高温度、抬高最低温度。本建筑物的辅助供暖或制冷度数预计可高达7.5摄氏度。

所有的阳面都安装有被动式遮阳构件,而公共区域的混凝土地面确保了冬天太阳的照射效果也能得到保留。还使用了可燃性很低的材料,防止引发森林火灾,另外也使用了当地的可再生木材。整个建筑中都有水回收利用系统,瓦斯用于加快屋顶太阳能热水的加热速度。

(本文贡献方:archdaily,archgo;组织:树状模式)
From the architect. The Australian PlantBank at Mount Annan, is a science and research facility of the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust.

The plan has been derived in response to the brief and to the strong natural context. The brief calls for a building of dual function – firstly a place in which research into Australian indigenous seeds will be conducted and a repository of seeds is housed and secondly a facility revealing research through public interpretation and exhibition activities.

The natural setting has influenced the form of the building it embraces the remnant endangered Cumberland Plain forest to the north; as the natural character of the forest transitions to the cultivated landscape of the “embraced” courtyard the building literally reflects the merging landscapes. The dialogue between the transitional landscape and the building is a metaphor for the mediated and cultivated land of Australia.

The landscape is pre-eminent in the experience of the “place” and with the primacy of this relationship between participant and landscape in mind, the building’s entry becomes the engagement with the landscape. Going under the east wing of the building – nominally passing under the ground – the building curves to the north and merges with the land toward the extant forest. Walking to the front door the visitor engages the interpretive display that connects the external courtyard with the internal research.

The entry into the “domain” of PlantBank under the east wing commences the merging of the built and natural forms – the reflective soffit of the entry reflects the terrestrial path, the lichen garden uses remnant sandstone blocks rescued from demolished Sydney buildings to host exotic lichen colonies – a symbolic returning of the once shaped urban sandstone back into its natural (albeit contrived) composure.

The narrative of the built landscape alludes to a “harnessing” socialised culture – the pattern diminishes as the courtyard merges visually into the natural forest to the north.

The building’s expression is derived from this visceral relationship between built form and the land – the concrete base nominally the abstracted earth; the polished stainless steel panels diluting and making ambiguous the relationship between the built and natural settings; the operable louvres enabling mixed mode ventilation sealed by stainless steel bushfire mesh; and the form of the building in both plan and expression being deferential to its natural setting.
Inside the building, the visitor path runs beside the clear glazed laboratories with the external interpretive material focussed on the activities within the labs. The culmination of the visit is the apex of the plan where a multi-purpose room enables seminars and events.

The workplace of the researchers and staff is in a mixed mode environment. Interior finishes have been chosen to articulate the different characters of the building – the laboratories and interpretive areas having visual clarity with the workplaces designed with timber and a softer working environment.

Linked to the Stolen Generations Walk through the forest, PlantBank visitors can be immersed into the greater environment of the Garden.

Sustainability
Sustainability at PlantBank continues the engagement of the building and domain with its natural setting. The plan arcs to the north placing the maximum amount of visitor facade to the sun which is then moderated by a deep wall enabling sunshading. The depth of the wall also facilitates all weather operability of the glass louvres in the public areas and the workplace. In the workplace, with an open plan spanning from east to west, cross ventilation is assured for a considerable part of the year. The mixed mode facilitates a lesser reliance on mechanical plant resulting in significantly diminished energy consumption.

A thermal labyrinth has been installed under the east wing which reduces the HVAC load and extends natural ventilation, particularly during summer when fresh air pre-cooled overnight circulates and forces out warm air. The system is designed to reduce the peaks and troughs of extreme ambient weather by capturing either the heat of the day or the cool of the night retaining it in the surrounding concrete, earth and rock beds of the constructed labyrinth. The prediction for the assisted warming or cooling of the building is up to 7.5 degrees centigrade.

Passive shading is provided to all sun facing surfaces and the concrete floor of the public areas ensures the effect of winter sun is harnessed. Materials of low combustibility have been used to enable bushfire protection and locally sourced renewable resource timber has been used. Water harvesting is employed throughout and gas boosted solar hot water is located on the roof.





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建筑位于水泥底座之上,底座与院子中间的景观相连接
建筑位于水泥底座之上,底座与院子中间的景观相连接
镜面一般的地面反射着高出地面的结构的下部
镜面一般的地面反射着高出地面的结构的下部

地衣花园展示着被拆毁的建筑物残留的砂岩
地衣花园展示着被拆毁的建筑物残留的砂岩




建筑物和周围环境中间的过渡景观
建筑物和周围环境中间的过渡景观




从门廊望向森林
从门廊望向森林



玻璃百叶窗给建筑内部以及私人空间提供良好的通风
玻璃百叶窗给建筑内部以及私人空间提供良好的通风
实验区对公众开放
实验区对公众开放









基地平面 Site Plan
基地平面 Site Plan
负二层平面
负二层平面
负一层平面
负一层平面
一层平面
一层平面
二层平面
二层平面

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