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荷兰阿姆斯特丹市立博物馆(Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam) - Benthem Crouwel Architects

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项目概况:
建筑设计:Benthem Crouwel Architects
地址:荷兰,阿姆斯特丹(Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
面积:26,500 平方米
时间:2012
照片版权:Jannes Linders

项目简介:
阿姆斯特丹市立博物馆因其值得称道的当代艺术藏品而世界闻名。尽管其藏品在这个领域与国际顶级博物馆相当,建筑本身却是过时的。在阿姆斯特丹Museumplein(博物馆广场)的位置除了阿姆斯特丹国立博物馆,还有梵高博物馆和音乐厅,,这使得在所有选择中最佳方案莫过于回到这个顶级博物馆,完成其改建和扩建。

博物馆现有建筑由市政建筑师A.W. Weismann于1895年设计,以其宏伟的楼梯间,大房间与自然采光闻名。根据前博物馆馆长威廉桑德伯格(1945 – 1962)对整个博物馆的介绍,这些优点以及白色的使用一直留存在建筑师Benthem Crouwel的设计中。新的扩建并不要求更多的相同点,而是增添更多类别和展览的新机会。旧建筑与新形式合为一体。无论是展览还是流线,都避免了在新旧之间做出取舍。扩建并不是次要的或现有建筑旁的一座十分不同的展馆,而是一个综合的增建部分。新建筑与老建筑的对比在外立面十分明显,在博物馆内部几乎注意不到从新建筑漫步到旧房子。

之前的入口并不适合作为公共入口——带有所有相关功能维护。通过保持现有建筑的优势,在现有的建筑内创造一个21世纪博物馆是不可能满足所有新的部分和公共功能的。这一限制明显将新博物馆朝向了Museumplein的方向。阿姆斯特丹市立博物馆是第一个真正在Museumplein上开了入口的博物馆。为确保Museumplein有足够的空间而不会过度建设,同时被作为南侧一个合适的入口广场,建筑朝向被旋转以实现最佳利用。新入口无缝地融入对称建筑和扩建部分的现有中央入口。通过部分减少增建部分的体量并部分埋入地下,现有建筑仍几乎不变并完全可见。

新入口的所有公共功能诸如入口处办公桌、知识中心、博物馆商店和餐厅都位于宽敞、开放、透明的空间,在这里广场地板一直延续到现有建筑外。广场成为建筑的一部分,正如它是Museumplein的一部分。广场上方到建筑之间的翼形悬挑屋顶在石框架的高度上,强化了广场到建筑开放式的过渡,并彻底消去了任何找不到入口的可能性。光滑的白色体量也被称为“浴缸”,采用了纤维复合材料。建筑典型的形式通过将外立面紧密围绕内部功能而出现。增加的突出屋顶是为了遮阳防雨。在旧建筑的背景下,屋顶下的大体量赋予阿姆斯特丹市立博物馆的新的强大形象。

游客可以从入口通过不同流线经过建筑。路线可由程序控制,但在每个方向并不是强制性的。因此可以通过不同路线直接走到旧建筑。纪念性的楼梯被保留下来,并在流线中继续发挥重要功能。新入口大厅也有通过它的流线。宽敞阁楼中的大楼梯提供了流线中俯瞰较低的陈列室视野。广场下的空间包含±1100 m2的大展厅。

从建筑最低层可以到达一个漂浮的新展厅层。通过封闭黄色管道中的两个自动扶梯,直接通过新入口大厅的两个展区被连接在一起。游客因此穿越了入口区域而未离开展览路线,同时未受到公共功能的影响:游客可以继续沉浸在博物馆的氛围。漂浮体量中的展厅直接连接到旧建筑的荣誉大厅,使得流线首尾相接完成。通过各种类型的空间,新博物馆形成了具有丰富体验与展览的机会。现存建筑将——未动——完整地被尊重,同时在与新建筑的同一屋檐下获得新生,以及Museumplein的新流线。

The Stedelijk Museum is internationally known and renowned for its commendable collection of contemporary art. Although her collection is equivalent with the international top museums in this field, the building was outdated. The position on the Museumplein (Museum square) in Amsterdam, where the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum and the Concertgebouw also are situated, created all options to be back at the top of the museums with a renovated and expanded building.

The existing building of the Stedelijk Museum created in 1895 by the municipal architect A.W. Weismann, is celebrated for its majestic staircase, grand rooms and natural lighting. These strong points have been retained in the design by Benthem Crouwel Architects along with the colour white, introduced throughout the museum by former museum director Willem Sandberg (1945-1962). The new extension does not ask for more of the same, but to supplement by variety and by adding new opportunities for exhibitions. The old remains and forms unity with the new. Both in terms of exhibitions and routing, making compelling choices between old and new has been averted. The expansion is not a subordinate, or very different pavilion next to the existing building, but an integrated addition. The contrast of the new building versus the old building is obvious from the outside; inside the museum you hardly notice strolling from the new building into the old.

The former entrance was unsuitable as a public entrance – with all the associated functions – to be maintained. While maintaining the strengths of the existing building was not possible to have all new components and public functions, which create a museum of the 21st century, in the existing building. This restriction had the obvious ability of turn the orientation of the new museum toward the Museumplein. The Stedelijk Museum is the first museum with an actual entrance on the Museumplein. To make sure that the available space at the Museumplein would not be overbuild, but instead was appropriated as an entrance plaza to the south, the rotated orientation is optimally exploited. The new entrance seamlessly fits into the existing central access zone of the symmetrical building and is an extension. By partly lifting the added volume and sinking the rest underground, the existing building remains virtually untouched and fully visible.

In the new entrance all public functions, such as the entrance desks, knowledge center, museum shop and restaurant are located in a large open, transparent space where the plaza floor continues to the outside of the existing building. The square is part of the building as much as it is a part of the Museumplein. The wing-shaped, cantilevered roof over the square at height of the stone frames, reinforces the open transition from square to building and removes any doubts about the whereabouts of the entrance. The smooth white volume, also known as ‘the bathtub’, is made from fiber enforced composite. The typical shape of the building arose by pulling the exterior facade tight around the interior functions. The jutting roof was added as a functional protection against sun and rain. Against the backdrop of the old building, the roof with the volume underneath is the new powerful image of the Stedelijk Museum.

From the entrance, visitors can familiarize themselves with the different routes that are possible through the building. The routing can be controlled by the programming, but is not mandatory in one direction. Thus it is possible to walk directly into the old building to follow the various circuits. The monumental staircase remained and continues to have an important function in the routing. The new entrance hall also has the possibility to follow a route through the new halls. A broad stairway in a spacious loft offers views of the routing that leads to the lower exhibition rooms. Here, among other things under the square, a large exhibition hall of ± 1,100 m2 is created.

From this lowest level in the building it is possible to move to a new exhibition hall in the floating volume level. Via two escalators in an enclosed yellow “tube”, straight through the new entrance hall, the two exhibition areas are connected. This way the visitor crosses the entrance area without leaving the exhibition route and without being distracted by the public functions: visitors remain in the museum atmosphere. The exhibition hall in the floating volume is directly connected to the hall of honor in the old building, which makes the routing circle complete. Due to the variety of types of space, a new museum comes into existence with a wealth of experiences and exhibition opportunities. The existing building will be – untouched – in full glory, but at the same time begin a new life, with the new orientation at the Museumplein, under one roof with the new building.





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