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台湾新北市中和国民运动中心(Zhonghe Sports Center) - 曾永信建筑师事务所(Q-Lab)

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项目概况:
建筑设计:Q-Lab
地址:台湾,新北市,中和区(Zhonghe District, New Taipei City, Taiwan 235)
主持建筑师:Sense Tseng, Borden Tseng
建筑面积:12090.0 平方米
基地面积:23420 平方米
时间:2014
照片版权:Highlite Images

项目简介:
定义 (DEFINITION)
Q‐\LAB 期许每当面对一个全新的案件时,我们皆能充分了解、分析其建筑类型(typology)的历史、案例,然后针对研究成果提出看法、甚至重新定义或挑战其建筑类型(typology)的构成及意涵。针对本案,我们试图大量阅读国内外运动中心的案例,发现在大部分的运动场馆中, 人与人的互动、或是运动与运动之间的连结甚是薄弱,其建筑剖面犹如Koolhaas(库哈斯)在Delirious New York (癫狂的纽约)里面提到的景象:各楼层充斥著不同的空间型态,唯一将大楼串连起来的是那几座电梯,人与人在建筑物里面的关系是薄弱的。因此,在竞图初期,我们便企图打破这样的空间屏障,甚至提出或定义本案的设计主旨——体育场馆是一座力量及能量汇流的流动空间。」(Gymnasium is a confluence of strength and movement in a fluid space)。为达到建筑的流动性,我们试图从空间计画做起(视觉的流动),结合结构设计(力学的流动)、外墙构造设计(光影的流动)、并搭配缜密的整合设计(系统的流动),企图营造一座流动的建筑。

空间计画 (PROGRAM)
中和国民运动中心座落于锦和运动公园内,公园设有田径场、户外篮球场、网球场、室内游泳池及其他休憩设施。虽然公园幅员广大,但实际上赋予兴建运动中心的可建范围却不甚宽裕。因此,本案最关键的课题是如何在有限的基地范围内,执行完成政府机关所规定的庞大空间需求。于是我们从设计初期,便著手定性定量的将所有的空间模拟成数个实际大小的空间立方体,并进行第一次的拆解组合、模具分割及楼层分配,目的是为了寻找降低庞大量体的方法,并减少建筑对都市造成的影响。因此决定将本案体积最大的滑轮曲棍球场从主建物中抽出,并将其配置于基地北方地下二楼处,仅露出三角折板屋顶于地面之上。此设计除能降低主建物高度以外,还能适当地提供位于地下室滑轮曲棍球场一个自然採光的机会,同时也因为屋顶的全面绿化,还可有效降低屋顶下的室内温度。
主建物低楼层量体
我们将性质较雷同的运动空间共同聚集在一个高达两层楼的族群量体内,并赋予此量体双层的挑高空间。此空间量体一楼设有贩卖部、儿童游戏室、桌球室、撞球室、防护室、会议室,二楼则设有韵律教室、体适能教室、飞轮教室等空间。一、二楼共同享有双层挑高、採光明亮的入口大厅、中庭及梯厅等公共空间,不仅适合举办各类大型活动,也可兼做签唱会、演讲或集会等功能使用。此量体组合方式除企图加强视觉流动及人与人的互动关系外,也希望透过设计,能进一步的回馈市民一座舒适、宽敞的公众客厅空间(Public Living Room)。
主建物高楼层量体
我们将较大型的运动空间共同汇集在此族群量体内。此空间量体三楼设有壁球室、羽毛球场、器材室、音控室、办公室、空调机房,四楼则设有攀岩室、篮球场、器材室、音控室、办公室及空调机房等设备空间。此组合方式不仅能有效配置各大型空间所需的机电、空调、灯光及淋浴相关设备于同一楼层,也能善用长跨距钢构结构系统的特色,统筹支撑这些大型空间于一完整量体。
次建物地下室量体
我们将本案量体最庞大的滑轮曲棍球场安置于次建物的地下二楼,同楼层设有球员休息室、裁判室、储藏室、空调机房等设备空间,地下一楼则设有停车场、服务台、办公室、观众席、台电配电室、消防机房、空调机房等相关设备空间,搭配一楼入口平台处的咖啡雅座,市民们可轻鬆享受淨高达八米以上的滑轮曲棍球场。

结构设计 (STRUCTURE)
本案结构设计主要由三大区块构成:主建物低楼层部份为RC 构造(一、二楼)、主建物高楼层部份为钢构造(三、四楼)、及次建物地下量体部份为RC 构造结合钢构屋顶。上述三大结构区块,皆由统一的结构柱距组成(八米五为一跨距),建筑形体配合空间计画及各空间淨高的需求,自然衍生出一座以三角几何做为立面主要构成元素的流动造型结构体。然而,由于本案经费偏低,故设计时,结构体必须局部选择以RC 构造施作,以利降低整体工程造价。在主建物低楼层部份(一、二楼),各运动教室空间无长跨距需求,故结构系统以RC 构造为主。在主建物高楼层部份,由于羽球场及篮球场均需要挑高、长跨距、无落柱空间,故结构系统以钢构造为主。在次建物地下量体部份,滑轮曲棍球场长51 米、宽26 米,其设计需求为长跨距、无落柱之运动空间,故我方以三角折板为主要力学设计概念,打造一座大型三角几何钢构屋顶,并企图借由此构造系统,传递结构力学之美。

外墙、屋顶系统(CURTAIN WALL & ROOFING SYSTEM)
由于政府单位长期编列偏低的预算经费,因此台湾大部分的公共工程大都只能採购较无设计感的门窗系统,故一般大楼外墙的设计及施工品质普遍偏低,尤其门窗框料大都粗壮,又每当遇到推开窗或横拉窗时,其框料尺寸常常显得较粗糙也较无质感。在中和国民运动中心一案,我们极力解决上述外墙及门窗问题。因此我们决定重新设计所有帷幕外墙及室内门窗的直横框料。为了提升整体质感,我们决定以「双刀」系统呈现主建物一、二楼量体及次建物一楼所有看的到的门窗框料。此双刀系统意指所呈现出来的直料有如两片刀面的细薄,刀面本身仅0.3 公分厚,刀面与刀面的间距为0.5 公分,故整体直料所呈现出来的效果被控制在约一公分左右,相较于传统的8 至10 公分,细腻度及质感均可增加许多。所有推开窗也均以双刀及隐框方式设计,故整体外墙也能较均质的呈现其细腻质感。在主建物三、四楼量体的处理上,我们企图将一般台湾工业区常见的金属外墙材料,拿来做为本案帷幕外墙使用。原因有二,第一,其方形钢浪板的形式可充分反应四季甚至每日不同时段的日照阴影变化,其光影效果丰富,建筑物可呈现最自然的物理表情。第二,此材料单价相较于其他材质经济实惠许多,可解决公共工程预算编列偏低的问题(但建议政府可提高公共工程造价,避免营建经费不足的窘境)。 本案我方于滑轮曲棍球场的三角钢构屋顶上进行大面积的覆土绿化设计,原因有二。第一,由于此屋顶构造为最接近人行道之量体,故我们希望呈现人行道旁有如北海道一片花海或草海的景象,让市民在閒暇散步之馀,可享受绿意盎然的街景。第二,屋顶覆土绿化设计可大幅度降低室内温度,对处于热带型气候的台湾来说,是一个既能节能减碳、减少空调用量、又能降低热岛效应及增加绿覆盖率的永续建筑设计手法。 Q‐\LAB 希望能透过对外墙美学、细部设计及永续节能的自我要求,对我们所居住的都市环境尽一份心力。

整合设计 (INTEGRATION)
建筑是艺术与科学的结合、是空间与材质的融合,是线条与尺度的整合。在中和国民运动中心一案,我们试图找寻所有空间、结构、材料的的共同分母(柱距)及分子(空间单元、外墙分割及磁计画),从最宏观的建筑主体到最细微的扶手栏杆,无不斤斤计较。我们认为,整合是建筑师的天职,也深信少即是多(LESS IS MORE)的道理。我们执著于将结构、机电、空调、室内装修等建筑元素整合于无形,因此我们追求精准。我们认为精准的态度也必须落实在整体设计概念上,无论是景观设计、灯光设计、室内设计、家具设计、工业设计、平面设计乃至于都市设计,都应遵循一脉相传的设计思维。本案我们试图整合结构柱距、帷幕单元分割、室内磁砖分割计画、天花设计及灯具配置模具、空调出风及回风口形式、消防机电与轻隔间墙齐平处里原则等问题。我们热衷整合所有看的到及看不到的机电、空调、灯具、给排水等设备管线系统。我们希望最终所呈现的空间是少即是多的美,天地墙尽量减少建筑设备的痕迹,留下的是空间最原始应有的氛围。

体验(HUMANITY)
从公开竞图到细部设计,从施工到完工,本案前后历经近三年之久。Q‐\LAB 最后希望留下的是一座属于当地市民的公共建筑,是一座除能避风遮雨、享受运动功能之外,还能充满空间体验及无限想像的都市建筑。当然, 也希望当建筑完成时,我们能做到当初对本案许下的期许:体育场馆是一座力量及能量汇流的流动空间。
(中文为简介,与英文不一一对应)

From the architect. Design Analysis
Traditionally, most of the district-based sports centers in Taiwan were built like office buildings nested within crowded urban fabrics. As the result, these buildings often do not reach their full potential nor open up more opportunities to the general public in terms of social engagements and spatial arrangements. Programs inside these buildings are typically separated by floor slabs which disengage activities and block visual connections from each other, visitors were often left without choices but to take elevators to arrive to their desired destinations. The lack of spatial and visual qualities was often the aftermath or syndromes of this building type, particularly in the metropolitan cities of Taiwan. Q-Lab understands the underlying challenges and decides to engage the project with urbanistic approach as well as social agendas in mind.

Design Condition
The given site is located inside a large recreational park with a small footprint for buildings to be erected within. The plot is bounded by a main road to the north, an existing parking lot to the east, a swimming facility to the west and an outdoor basketball court to the south. Existing utilities such as gas pipes and water sewage on site were to be kept according to the design guidelines. In addition, the overall budget is given at only US$13k per square meter in comparison to the international standard of US$25k per square meter.

Design Concept
The design begins from an urbanistic analysis that helps determine where the main building was to be located and at what height it was to be built. The building then follows the overall master plan principal and develops from the guidelines associated with it. The design concept of the sports center was then generated from the idea of stacking all the required programs in the most compact form, which incorporates playful building sections that engage indoor space with outdoor surroundings, and at the same time, involves spatial arrangements with visual connectivity. One big decision was to house the field hockey rink away from the main building and bury it deep into the basement, revealing only its triangulated roof with grass covered on top. By doing so, we were able to reduce the building height and create less urban congestion in terms of building mass and scale. Moreover, with grass and soil covering the roof of the hockey rink, one was able to prevent summer heat penetrating directly into the interior space. As the result, cooling load was further reduced, and a more sustainable environment was possible for the district of Zhonghe.

Design Execution
With low building budget, construction methods, material selections as well as building geometry were all as important to help realize the design intention. Q-Lab spent a tremendous amount of time in finding the optimal building geometry so that all the column spacing would be equal and aligned, all the facades would be modulated and unitized, and all the structure pieces would be easily erected and assembled. Moreover, to further save cost, only long-span spaces were realized with steel structure, while the rest of the building was constructed with reinforced concrete on the lower floors. The atrium on the first floor was designed to be a double height space with mezzanine levels on both sides all the way through the entire length of the building so that the plinth feels open and spacious with no obstruction in sight. This atrium space is designed to function as an urban living room, which welcomes visitors with well-lit space and features urban furniture for people to linger and stay. The Mezzanine level hosts a fitness room, a spinning-bike room and three yoga rooms. The third floor hosts six badminton courts and two squash courts. The fourth floor houses 2 basketball courts and a rock-climbing room. These four floors were bundled together to form the “main building” with a faceted exterior that speaks to the hilly surrounding. The field-hockey rink on the other hand was pulled away from the main building and reveals only its green roof to the general public with triangulated windows for people to peek below. This triangulated roof spans almost sixty meters in length and 30 meters in width without one single column. In addition, more than two hundred seats at B1 level were provided when games were hosted.

Conclusion
A sports center in Taiwan is a place to meet, to see and to be seen. It is a building typology that deals with strict sports requirements and at the same time, engages pubic with social protocols and agendas. Q-Lab approaches the design with awareness of its local environment and renders it with structural expression and architectural integrity. We strive to make public buildings sociable and accessible with dynamic quality in both space and form. Zhonghe Sports Center breaks the norm from conventional building typology. It is a place to meet, to see and to be seen.





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