法国沙尔蒙市镇某托儿所(Childcare Facilities in Boulay) - Paul Le Quernec

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项目概况:
建筑设计:Paul Le Quernec
地址:Ferme des Bougeois, Charmont, France
助理建筑师:Damla Oktay, Michel Grasso, Benjamin Ringeisen, Guillaume Jenny
时间:2012
业主:Communauté de Communes du Pays Boulageois
照片版权:Paul Le Quernec

项目简介:
我们的客户于2010年1月为两个托儿设施的设计进行了设计竞赛,一个在布雷(即本案),要求的建筑毛面积为1000平方米,另一个在更远处的皮布朗格,建筑面积为350平方米。

虽然面积要求不同,这两个建筑都位于用地充裕的市郊,限制极少。我们充分利用了这些有利条件尽量把焦点放在优化功能,提高安全性和舒适性上。

设计理念
这个日托机构主要面对婴儿而非儿童,所以要研究家长与工作人员的行为和情感,在建筑设计中综合考虑婴儿被保护、被关怀的需要。

功能性
入口位于建筑背街的一侧,远离行车,使来访者觉得安全。设计还避免了尽端路,并把入口设计的很狭窄以限制机动车停车,降低了行人和儿童受伤害的可能性。

此外雨水管位于建筑侧面,这样家长们永远不用抱起孩子跨过水沟。内部空间的组织都围绕着高度安全的圆形中央空间,孩子们的空间围绕并汇聚于此。每个相邻的空间都彼此连通便于相互照料,最大程度的保证了安全。中心帷幕似的木结构最高处是3米宽的聚碳酸酯拱形天花板,保证室内全天都沐浴在充足的阳光之下。

为了保证设施的安全,所以在内部配件的设计中,消除了所有的直角结构,并提供平滑弯曲的边缘,即使连锋利的边缘也被倒圆。这些是该建筑的特点之一,外墙像波浪一样进入了内部空间。

在建筑物的设计过程中,建筑的地基也被考虑到了。正如你可以在轴测观点看到,我们确实是将所有技术和管理空间一起放在建筑的北侧,同时节省南侧的空间。为孩子们创造活动的场所。在外部空间,当然,是朝南的。为孩子们提供无论是晴天还是雨天,他们都可以使用的,无论什么天气条件都有保护的操场,建筑的屋顶延伸到覆盖这些空间。

这样设计的另一个结果是,因为它,我们不再需要在这两个建筑物之中设计走廊。所有的幼儿空间都可以连接到建筑的中心区域。除了审美效果和符合人体工程学,真正收获的是有效地节省了空间。我们总共节省了约100平方米的空间,同时使得整个建筑中走廊所占用的面积仅占了11%。这样做的好处使我们能够设计出两栋满足BBC(低能源使用建筑物)条例的建筑物,同时没有超过我们客户的临时预算。

外部空间
关于托儿所的设计,它位于朝南的方位,同时基地向自然方面倾斜,这就给了我们一个想法——创造能够与环境无缝集成并发生一系列连锁反应的平台。每个平台对应像花园,游乐场,教育花园等功能...该设施的离心形状也体现了基地所处的状况,这简直就像是被其它教育机构所环绕。整个建筑没有主立面,也没有背立面,但就像圆圈只有一个边缘,它仅有一个美学上均匀的外观,其可以从周围可见。

关于小型苗圃,我们选择建立的地点,这是在大街上的边缘,使建筑物将是朝南的平坦部分。此外,由于该设施是在城市的入口处,它起着关键的作用,由于其主导地位,它需要对墙面的设计尤其要注意,如儿童保育设施。

建造材料
尽管这个建筑的形体特别,但还是采用传统的施工方法和材料进行修建。外墙均采用保温粘土,覆盖了20厘米厚的钢筋岩棉外墙来进行保温。外表面覆盖了经典涂层,然后根据我们已确定的图形进行彩绘。内表面上则涂有石膏。

承载内部壁是由钢筋混凝土制成的,并且它们支持的屋顶被弯曲的形状,大量使用以降低制造成本,胶水层叠木梁用来建造单层防潮膜覆盖的屋顶。

内部隔墙均采用双层石膏板,它们是弯曲或直的。穿孔石膏板用在天花板,提高了整体的声学舒适性。

该项目还包括地板采暖系统,覆盖油毡。内部的生态涂料是无溶剂的。为了达到BBC(低能源使用建筑)的能源需求,门窗都是木制的。

技术特点和节能技术
我们建议使用天然气为基础的产热系统用在保育设施中,和在幼儿园取暖系统中。在法国HQE和BBC的标准(HQE:高环境质量; BBC:低能源使用建筑)也需要一个高效率的热回收通风系统,我们已经纳入设计建筑的成本,来自的一开始就估算的项目,以及许多其他的节能系统。

我们都知道,计算是没有意义的,除非我们实际部署这些系统,特别是对气密封闭性的建筑。这就是为什么我们进行了施工过程中的两个鼓风机门测试:在外墙完成第一个测试,第二个测试是在交付客户使用后。

(本文贡献方:archdaily,treemode;组织:树状模式)
Our client, “La communauté de communes du Pays Boulageois” launched an architectural competition in January 2010 in order to build simultaneously two childcare facilities: one of them in Boulay, for a gross floor area of 1000 m2 and the other one, fifteen kilometers further, in Piblange for a gross floor area of 350 m2.

Despite the size difference between the two buildings, they both benefit from an open parcel and an urban context that imposes very few planning restrictions. We have thus chosen to explore this great contextual freedom and we have been therefore able to design these buildings by focusing on optimal functionality, safety and comfort, regardless of their size.

Concept
Childcare facilities and nurseries are not intended for children but babies…, which conditions the behavior and the sensitivity of the parents and the staff. In our opinion, the infants’ fragility and need of protection and care should be taken into consideration and so integrated in the architecture. That is why we have chosen to develop a uterine concept, which has only been possible thanks to the unrestricted urban setting.

Functionality
The entrance is set back from the street and so from the traffic. In order to strenghten the visitors perception of feeling safe, it “submerges” into the building. We also have wanted to avoid dead-ends for the vehicle circulation, so the access is through a one-way lane that limits the parking maneuver and decreases the risks of accidents involving pedestrians, children or strollers. Moreover, the drop-off area is next to the sidewalk, so that the parents should never have to cross the street with children in their arms.

We have organized the interior of the building around a highly protected circular central space. Children’s spaces gravitate and converge around this centre. Crossed views between each part of the building, are centrifugal and centripetal. The surveillance and the security are thus at the maximum level. At the very center of the building, the circus tent-like wooden structure ends with a 3 meters wide vaulted ceiling made of polycarbonate, which ensures that the daylight may be provided during the entire day.

For the purpose of safety, the interior fittings have been designed in order to make all the right angles disappear and to offer smoothly curved walls. The sharp edges are also rounded off. The building is so characterized by this feature that even the external walls “undulate” around the internal spaces.

Cardinal points are also taken into account during the design process of the buildings. As you can see on the axonometric views, we have indeed put together all technical and administrative spaces on the north side of the building, while saving the south side for children’s spaces. And the exterior spaces are, of course, south-facing. In order to provide children with a playground protected from sun or rain, which they can use regardless of weather conditions, the roof of building extends to cover these spaces.

Another result of the centripetal organization is that, thanks to it, we do not need anymore hallways in these two buildings. Every children space is directly linked to central area. In addition to its aesthetic effect and ergonomic benefit, the real gain is related to space saving. Thanks to this system, we have been able to save about 100 square meters, which gives a hallway ratio of 11 %. This benefit allowed us to design two buildings that respect BBC (Low Energy-Use Building) regulations without overrunning the provisional budget of our client.

Exterior Spaces
Regarding the child-care facility in Boulay, it was the south-facing orientation and the natural incline of the site that gave us the idea of creating platforms with a cascade effect for a smooth integration with the environment. Each platform corresponds a function like gardens, playgrounds, educational gardens, etc … The centrifugal shape of the facility reflects the situation of the site, which is literally surrounded by other educational facilities. Our building have neither a “main facade” nor a “back facade”, but as a circle that has only one edge, it has only one aesthetically homogenous facade, which can be seen from all around.

Regarding the micro-nursery in Piblange, we have chosen to build on the flat part of the site, which is on the street side, so that the building would be south facing. Moreover, as the facility is at the entrance of the city, it plays a key role thanks to its dominant position and it requires particular attention for the facades’ design, like the child-care facility in Boulay.

Construction Materials
Despite their atypical shapes, the both building have been designed to being built using traditional construction methods and materials. The facades are made of insulating clay bricks, covered by 20 cm thick re-enforced mineral wool external insulation. The external surface is covered with a classic coating and then painted according a pattern that we have determined. The internal surface is coated with plaster.

The load bearing internal walls are made of reinforced concrete and they support the roof with glue laminated wooden beams that are curved shaped but mass-produced in order to decrease the manufacturing cost. A single layer damp-proof membrane covers the roof.

The internal partition walls are made of double plasterboards, which are curved or straight. Perforated plasterboards cover the ceilings, improving overall acoustic comfort.

The project also includes an under-floor heating system, covered by linoleum. Internal ecological paints are solvent-free. In order to reach BBC (Low Energy-Use Building) energy performances, the doors and windows are made of wood.

Technical Featuresand Energy Saving Technologies
We propose natural gas-based heat production for the childcare facility in Boulay and a heat pump for the nursery in Piblange. HQE and BBC standards in France (HQE : High Environmental Quality ; BBC : Low Energy-Use Building) also require a high efficiency heat recovery ventilation system, which we have incorporated into the design and the estimation of the building’s cost from the outset of the project, as well as many other energy saving systems.

We are aware that the calculations are pointless unless we actually deploy these systems, especially for the air-tightness of the building. That is why we have included to the construction process two blower door tests: the first one when the enclosure is completed, and the second one when the building is delivered to the client.





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