上海自然博物馆新馆(Shanghai Natural History Museum) - Perkins+Will

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项目概况:
建筑设计:Perkins+Will
地址:上海市静安区山海关路399号(上海市静安雕塑公园内)
面积:44517.0 平方米
时间:2015
照片版权:James and Connor Steinkamp
https://vimeo.com/125462090" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">该项目有在线视频,点击跳转至 VIMEO 观看
博物馆官网
该馆已于4月19日正式对公众开放。开放时间:周二至周日9:00 ~ 17:15,周一休馆(黄金周除外)

项目简介:
上海自然博物馆(上海科技馆分馆)座落于上海市静安雕塑公园内,建筑面积45,257 平方米,展览教育服务面积32,200 平方米,预计年接待观众80-120万人次,将成为上海市重要的科普教育基地和公众社会文化交流平台。与旧馆相比,展厅面积扩大了二十倍,布展能力得到了大幅提升。

该建筑作品从自然界最纯粹的几何形态之一 -- 鹦鹉螺(nautilus)壳汲取灵感,通过总体形态和组织形式的设计来抒发这一灵感。设计以建筑外立面为媒介表达多种自然元素。其中,中部的细胞墙象征着动植物的细胞结构;东部的绿化墙代表着地球表面的天然植被;北部的石墙暗喻着活动的地壳板块,以及被河流侵蚀的峡谷岩壁。

Johnson在介绍博物馆设计时表示:“对中国传统园林文化的借鉴是设计的关键,将其与项目场地相结合,能使建筑彰显人与自然间的和谐感,同时也体现了对中国艺术设计基本要素的一种抽象表达。”

这是一座与生物气候变化相呼应的建筑,采用智能型建筑表皮最大限度地获得自然采光,同时减少日照热量。整个的庭院水池发挥着蒸发制冷作用,还能利用地热系统对建筑温度进行冷热调节。采用绿化屋顶收集雨水,利用水池蓄积雨水和经回收处理的废水。展馆的所有节能特性都构成展品的组成部分,向访客讲述这座博物馆的自然故事。

上海自然博物馆建筑的设计灵感来源于“螺”的壳体结构,盘旋而上的绿植屋面从公园内冉冉升起,静动有致的建筑宛如一只“绿螺”。建筑秉承“以人为本”的设计理念,融合“山水花园”的设计风格,采用“自然生态”的设计手法。中心景观区的160多种植物呈岛状分布,犹如“原始森林”一般,与五个大小不一的“水池”组成一座“山水花园”,继承了传统建筑文化。绿化屋面技术具有良好的隔热保温功能,年节电量可达24万千瓦。“绿螺”还采用节能围护结构、节能空调技术、太阳能综合利用、高大公共空间气流组织、自然光导光技术、雨水回收系统、生态节能集控管理平台等七大系统,与整个建筑共同构成达到国家绿色建筑评价标识星级标准的“绿色生态建筑”。

上海自然博物馆以“自然·人·和谐”为主题,通过“演化的乐章”、“生命的画卷”、“文明的史诗”三大主线,呈现了起源之谜、生命长河、演化之道、大地探珍、缤纷生命、生态万象、生存智慧、人地之缘、上海故事、未来之路等10个常设展区及临展厅、4D影院、探索中心等配套功能区域。展示陈列了来自七大洲的11000余件标本模型,其中珍稀物种标本近千件;近1500 平方米的步入式复原场景,逼真再现生机勃勃的非洲大草原;“跨越时空的聚会”大型标本阵列,汇聚古今中外200余件动植物明星;“逃出白垩纪”等5个沉浸式剧场,再现演化史上的大事件;“自然之窗”等26组复原生态景箱,致敬自然博物馆的经典展陈;400个视觉媒体和1套网上博物馆系统,满足自媒体时代的公众需求;1500组科学绘画,直观地展现艺术与科学的结合;300 平方米的活体养殖区,零距离触摸自然;1200 平方米的“探索中心”,构筑观察发现、动手实验、对话探讨的乐园;“自然史诗”多媒体秀,打造集科技、人文于一体的艺术盛宴。

上海自然博物馆拥有28万余件藏品,包括来自华东地区乃至全国及世界各地的自然界和人类历史遗物,分别隶属于植物、动物、古生物、地质及人文五大类,其中植物标本15万余件,哺乳动物标本4千余件,鱼类、鸟类、两栖爬行类各1万余件,昆虫标本近3.3万件,其他无脊椎标本5万余件,地质标本5千余件,古生物8千余件,人文民俗类3500余件。

新成立的“自然史研究中心”以丰富的馆藏标本为基础,以自然史为主要研究内容,致力于城市生态与生物多样性、地球“三极”生物和进化与比较生物等研究,将为自然博物馆的收藏、展示和教育提供学术支撑。科研人员通过保存自然界及人类遗物,利用标本进行学术研究,揭示生物多样性的发生、发展和维持机制,增进人们对生物及其环境演化的了解,并透过展示陈列和教育活动,传递藏品的科学内涵,传播科学方法和科学精神。

上海自然博物馆构建了面向各类受众、多维立体的教育体系,借助问题导向的教育方式、以人为本的自主学习和动态开放的知识体系,引导观众探究过去、把握现在、思考未来。除了常设展区中的实验室、研究室、教育活动点之外,位于地下二楼的“探索中心”是馆内特设的一处教育活动场所,以儿童、青少年、学生团体、亲子团体为主要受众群体。结合博物馆特色展示资源、衔接学校课程内容,自主开发的教育课程,紧扣学生兴趣特点,涵盖了几乎所有学科门类。活动形式不拘泥于传统的授课,兼顾观察记录、动手实验、主题演示、角色扮演、讨论对话等层次丰富、交叉互动的学习方式,培养受众科学探究的方法、自主学习的态度、追根溯源的探索精神。

除了实体场馆之外,上海自然博物馆还有一套以导览和教育为主要功能的网上博物馆应用系统,包括网站、APP和微信三大应用模块。系统通过基于位置感知的漫游式WiFi定位,融合增强现实、交互体验等新媒体技术开发的资源,向公众提供实时智能导览和教育服务。观众可以在展览现场通过APP进行实时学习,与专家进行在线交流讨论,设定主题参观路线,根据任务寻找感兴趣的化石标本,并且可以在离开博物馆后通过博物馆网站查询游览记录。系统支持PC、手机、PAD等多终端访问,通过用户UGC模式和专家PGC模式结合的方式,实现在线资源的自生长。
(中文为简介,与英文不一一对应)

延伸文章:一座“从内而外讲述自然”的建筑

From the architect. The much anticipated Shanghai Natural History Museum, designed by Perkins+Will’s Global Design Director Ralph Johnson, has opened in Shanghai. The 44,517 square meter (479,180 square foot) museum offers visitors the opportunity to explore the natural world through the display of more than 10,000 artifacts from all seven continents. The building includes exhibit spaces, a 4D theater, an outdoor exhibit garden, and a 30-meter tall atrium that welcomes visitors with an abundance of natural light filtered through a striking glass wall inspired by the cellular structure of plants and animals.

Perkins+Will was selected following an international design competition that included entries from some of the world’s best known architects. The overall shape and building organization was inspired by the nautilus shell, one of the purest geometric forms found in nature. Natural elements are depicted across the building’s fa?ades including the central cell wall representing the cellular structure of plants and animals, the east living wall signifying earth’s vegetation, and the northern stone wall suggesting shifting tectonic plates and canyon walls eroded by rivers.

“The use of cultural references found in traditional Chinese gardens was key to the design,” said Johnson. “Through its integration with the site, the building represents the harmony of human and nature and is an abstraction of the basic elements of Chinese art and design.”

It is a bioclimatic building in that it responds to the sun by using an intelligent building skin that maximizes daylight and minimizes solar gain. The oval courtyard pond provides evaporative cooling, while the temperature of the building is regulated with a geothermal system that uses energy from the earth for heating and cooling. Rain water is collected from the vegetated roof and stored in the pond along with recycled grey water. All of the energy features of the museum are part of exhibits which explain the story of the museum.

“For people who grew up in Shanghai, the old nature museum has a special place in their memories,” noted Managing Director for Perkins+Will’s Shanghai office James Lu. “Likewise, there is much excitement surrounding the opening of the new museum, which will have a similar place in the hearts of both residents and tourists alike. The museum will bring a renewed experience of natural history to this city for generations to come. We are honored to have served as the architect.” For more than three decades, Perkins+Will has designed dynamic projects across China. The firm’s 40-person office in Shanghai services a wide range of clients, and operates within all of Perkins+Will’s practice areas.

The museum is in the Jing An District, in the center of downtown Shanghai, and within the Jing An Sculpture Park. The building replaces the original Natural History Museum and improves the museum’s ability to exhibit its collection with 20 times more exhibition space.

Ranked number two among Architectural Record’s top museum design firms, Perkins+Will’s portfolio includes projects for some of the world’s most respected cultural institutions. Perkins+Will is the architect for the interior for the Mary Rose Museum in Portsmouth, England and past work includes the Intrepid Sea, Air and Space Museum in New York, New York; August Wilson Center for African American Culture in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum in Chicago, Illinois; A Casa Museum in S?o Paulo, Brazil; and Presidio Officers\' Club Museum in San Francisco, California. Additionally, Phil Freelon (now with Perkins+Will) leads the design team for the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, currently in construction on the National Mall in Washington, DC. Freelon was also the design architect for the Center for Civil and Human Rights in Atlanta, Georgia.





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