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德国斯图加特S住宅改造(Haus S) - Behnisch Architekten

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项目概况:
建筑设计:Behnisch Architekten
地址:德国,斯图加特(Stuttgart, Germany)
面积:185.8平方米(2000.0 ft2)
完工时间:2014
照片版权:David Matthiessen for Behnisch Architekten

项目简介:
来自建筑师的描述:这栋私人住宅坐拥周围的森林和宁静的山坡,同时,在上部一个全新的楼层上,还能饱览斯图加特南边的城市景色。

这是一个建于20世纪30年代的房子,并在1990年之前进行过翻新。现在以一个简单规整的自由式平面布置的楼层,替代过去的双坡屋顶。

改造的理念是将一个不显得唐突的结构放置在原有建筑之上。二层加建部分要与底下大体量的楼层形成对比,而不压制它。在不影响周边的风景下,通过大量的玻璃为房子创造一个聚焦点。

房子南面和西面的结构悬挑,突出了扩建部分。同时,它们也充当檐篷的功能,为花园创造灰空间。

功能区分布为:入口层和地下层保持原状。顶层自成体系。这个约150平方米的开放式空间由几个“盒子”进行分区,这些私密的房间分别用作更衣室、卫生间和客房。一扇巨大的滑动门将顶层分为主卧套间和待客区,这里包括了休息室、室内楼梯、书房和家庭办公室。

一部室外楼梯,设在窗外,能通向新的平屋顶上。屋顶上有一个由木地板铺成的新露台。扩建的部分是一个宽敞的空间,呼应了山林,并能欣赏到城市的美景。

住宅的地基和墙体的承载能力是未知的。因此,采用预制复合木材作为一种重量较轻的解决方案来建造新顶层。重量仅仅稍微超过房子之前的屋顶结构。

三层的玻璃立面平整地嵌入木框架。落地窗使光线穿透了整个顶层,还能欣赏到全景风光和提供了一种通透的感觉。室外的金属网卷帘过滤了的周边景观视野,同时保护室内防止太阳光照过热。

由石膏纤维板制造的辐射板用于天花和地板,通过夏天冷却和冬天加热,服务于房子室内的气候调控。通过深层地热钻井(3m x 90m),热泵和屋顶太阳能光热板的安装,进一步加强辐射采暖和制冷系统。房子原来的燃气加热器作为一个后备系统,在需要的时候提供额外的采暖。在整体能源使用效率方面,新建结构由高效节能材料(例如玻璃、屋顶保温材料等)建造,而房子原来部分的窗户和隔热性能并没有改动。

室内设计和材料
与玻璃材质、几何形状的外立面相比,室内的装修则创造出一种温馨、轻松的氛围。私人房间的地板和墙面都包裹着胡桃木板,呼唤出一种安静温暖,墙壁表面平滑,它隐藏了门、橱柜和一套内置的影音系统。原有的楼梯经过全新装修,用胡桃木做踏步并装上新的玻璃扶手栏杆。一个书架包围了客房的外墙。

在进入浴室后,室内的气氛改变了。墙壁暗沉而简洁,家具、橱柜和灯具的鲜亮色彩作为点缀。同样,更衣室也是与众不同的:白色的木板包裹着墙面,沿着墙面的可移动木质百叶营造了一个鲜明的特点。

原来的入口层通过许多小小的改变来适应上方的新楼层。例如,客厅顶上的新天花板采用了辐射板,新照明,和一套高保真音音响;两根柱子被拆除和所有的室内门都加宽了;楼下的浴室重新装修;安装了通向下层的新楼梯栏杆。设计了嵌壁式的可调节LED照明系统。

(本文贡献方:archdaily,archcollege;组织:树状模式)
From the architect.This private residence was renvisioned to embrace the surrounding woods and tranquil hillside location while offering city views of southern Stuttgart from a new upper floor.

In place of a double-pitched roof, a simple yet structured, open-plan floor is realized atop the house, a building from the 1930s, which had been previously refurbished in 1990.

The architectural idea was to place a deliberately unobtrusive structure upon the existing building. The second floor addition stands in contrast to the massive lower level without dominating it, creating a focal point for the house via massive glazing, without disturbing views of the surrounding landscape.

The structure’s cantilevers on the south and west sides of the house place emphasis on the new addition and function as dividing elements between the existing structure and new roof system. Simultaneously, they function as canopies, creating covered areas for the garden. The position of the new volume – the “glazed box” – is a response to building regulations and a solution to differentiate each garden on the sides of the building, orienting them toward the sun and views.

The location and organization of programming for the two lower floors – the entry level and a lower level, below – remain unchanged.

The top floor has its own organization. The approximately 150m2 open-plan space is zoned by “boxes” – the intimate private rooms used as a dressing room, bathrooms, and a guest room (the only “old” room retained from the original house.) A large sliding door divides the upper floor from the master suite and the guest areas with a lounge, inner stairs, a library, and a home office.

An outside staircase, placed on a partly demolished oriel, leads up to the top of the new flat roof, where a new terrace is created from timber flooring. The result is a generous residential level that responds to the hillside and provides views of the city.

The load bearing capacity of the home’s foundation and walls was unknown. Therefore, prefabricated laminate timber was used as a lightweight solution to construct the new top floor, creating an additional weightload that only marginally exceeds that of the home’s former roof structure.

The triple-glazed facade is trimmed in wood framing. Floor to ceiling windows shape the light throughout the upper floor, providing panoramic views and a sense of transparency. Exterior metal mesh roller shutters offer a filtered view of the surrounding landscape while protecting interiors from solar overheating.

Radiant panels made of gypsum fiberboard line both ceiling and floor and serve to regulate the home′s interior climate by cooling it in summer and heating it in winter. Radiant heating and cooling systems are further enhanced by deep probe geothermal drilling (3m x 90m), and the installation of a heat pump and solar thermal panels on the roof. The home’s existing gas heater acts as a back-up system and provides additional heating when needed. In terms of overall energy efficiency, the new structure is composed of highly energy efficient materials (e.g. glazing, roof insulation, etc.) while the windows and insulation on the existing part of the home was not altered.

Interior design and materials

In contrast to the glazed, geometric facade, the interior finishes create an inviting, relaxed atmosphere. The floor and walls of the private rooms are clad in walnut panels, evoking a quiet warmth with unobstructed surfaces that hide doors, cabinetry, and a built-in entertainment system. The existing inner staircase was newly finished with walnut treads and a new glass railing. A bookshelf envelops the outer walls of the guest room.

Upon entering the bathrooms, the atmosphere changes. Walls are dark and simple, and pops of color in the furniture, cabinets, and fixtures are set as counterpoints. Also, the dressing room is different: white wooden cladding on the walls and moveable wooden shutters along the facade create a distinct character.

The existing entry floor was adapted to the new upper floor by a number of small inventions. For example, a new ceiling in the living room includes radiant panels, new lighting, and a HiFi sound system; two columns were removed andall interior doors were enlarged; the downstairs bathroom was renovated; and a new staircase railing leading to the lower level was installed. The dimmable LED lighting system was designed with recessed, moveable spotlights, and additional lighting can be added when needed. Landscaping was performed by a professional gardener, chosen by the client.





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