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普利兹克奖评委会与往届获奖者致敬弗雷·奥托

文章 0 个评论 • 724 次浏览 • 2015-03-22 13:31 • 来自相关话题

纽约时报:德国建筑师弗雷·奥托去世后获普利兹克奖

资讯 0 个评论 • 573 次浏览 • 2015-03-13 19:04 • 来自相关话题

弗雷·奥托,从自然现象中寻找建造的灵感

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南萧亭:关于弗雷·奥托的只言片语

文章 0 个评论 • 644 次浏览 • 2015-03-13 02:08 • 来自相关话题

旧访:更多地了解自然——弗雷·奥托访谈录

资讯 0 个评论 • 624 次浏览 • 2015-03-11 15:42 • 来自相关话题

占据与连接——对人居场所领域和范围的思考

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普利兹克获奖评语:弗雷·奥托

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在简化模型和复杂现实之间——对弗雷·奥托聚落形态研究思路的再思考

文章 0 个评论 • 981 次浏览 • 2015-03-11 12:08 • 来自相关话题

2015年普利兹克建筑奖提前公布

资讯 0 个评论 • 525 次浏览 • 2015-03-11 11:53 • 来自相关话题

普利兹克奖评委会与往届获奖者致敬弗雷·奥托

文章 0 个评论 • 724 次浏览 • 2015-03-22 13:31 • 来自相关话题

弗雷·奥托,从自然现象中寻找建造的灵感

文章 0 个评论 • 1198 次浏览 • 2015-03-13 02:21 • 来自相关话题

在简化模型和复杂现实之间——对弗雷·奥托聚落形态研究思路的再思考

文章 0 个评论 • 981 次浏览 • 2015-03-11 12:08 • 来自相关话题

普利兹克奖评委会与往届获奖者致敬弗雷·奥托

文章 0 个评论 • 724 次浏览 • 2015-03-22 13:31 • 来自相关话题

弗雷·奥托,从自然现象中寻找建造的灵感

文章 0 个评论 • 1198 次浏览 • 2015-03-13 02:21 • 来自相关话题

南萧亭:关于弗雷·奥托的只言片语

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在简化模型和复杂现实之间——对弗雷·奥托聚落形态研究思路的再思考

文章 0 个评论 • 981 次浏览 • 2015-03-11 12:08 • 来自相关话题

纽约时报:德国建筑师弗雷·奥托去世后获普利兹克奖

资讯 0 个评论 • 573 次浏览 • 2015-03-13 19:04 • 来自相关话题

旧访:更多地了解自然——弗雷·奥托访谈录

资讯 0 个评论 • 624 次浏览 • 2015-03-11 15:42 • 来自相关话题

普利兹克获奖评语:弗雷·奥托

资讯 0 个评论 • 691 次浏览 • 2015-03-11 13:14 • 来自相关话题

2015年普利兹克建筑奖提前公布

资讯 0 个评论 • 525 次浏览 • 2015-03-11 11:53 • 来自相关话题

  弗雷·奥托1925年5月31日生于德国西格玛尔,2015年3月9日去世,2015年3月10日(均为美国时间)普利兹克组委会官方宣布其获得2015年普利兹克建筑奖。在他生前,组委会已向奥托当面传达了其获奖的讯息。他是第四十位普利兹克奖得主,也是获得该奖项的第二位德国建筑师。
 
(以下简历介绍来自普利兹克建筑奖官网。)
 弗雷·奥托于1925年5月31日出生在德国的Siegmar,并在柏林长大。在德语中,“弗雷”的意思是“自由”;他的母亲在参加了一次关于自由的讲座后想出了这个名字。奥托的父亲和祖父都是雕塑家。他还是一名年轻学生时,曾在学校放假期间担任石匠学徒。作为一项爱好,他曾驾驶并设计滑翔机——这项活动激起了他对轻型框架覆盖薄膜如何响应空气动力和结构应力的研究兴趣。
 
1943年他获得大学入学资格后,奥托立即报名学习建筑学,但未能如愿。相反,他加入了劳动者大军。1943年9月,奥托被应征入伍,并受训成为一名飞行员。1944年年底飞行员训练中止后,奥托成了一名步兵。1945年4月,他在纽伦堡附近被俘,在法国沙特尔附近的战俘营待了两年。在那里,他曾但任战俘营的建筑师,并学会了用尽可能少的材料建造多种类型的结构。
战争结束后,弗雷·奥托于1948年回国,在柏林技术大学攻读建筑学。他的建筑学观念一直反对第三帝国时期德国所流行的笨重、支柱构造并妄想永久存留的楼宇。与此相反,奥托的作品是轻量的、开放、民主和低成本的,有时甚至是临时的。
 
1950年,奥托在奖学金资助下赴美游学,并参观了弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特、埃瑞许·孟德尔松、艾罗·沙里宁、路德维希·密斯·凡德罗、理查德·诺依特拉、查尔斯和蕾·伊姆斯等人的作品。在此期间,他在弗吉尼亚大学学习社会学和城市发展。
 
1952年,弗雷·奥托成为了一名自由建筑师,并在柏林创办了自己的建筑事务所。1954年,他获得柏林技术大学土木工程博士学位,他的博士论文《悬挂屋顶、形式和结构》曾以德文、波兰文、西班牙文和俄文发表。此外,1954年,他开始与斯特罗梅耶尔建筑师事务所的“帐篷建造者”彼得·斯特罗梅耶尔展开合作。1955年,他们为在德国卡塞尔举行的德国联邦园艺博览会(联邦花园展)设计并建造了三个用棉织品制成轻量级、最小化的临时搭建物。这是他第一批获得国家承认的作品,其中一部分因素是这些结构与周边自然环境的协调。
 
弗雷·奥托率先将现代的轻型帐篷状结构进行广泛应用。他为此着迷的一个原因在于其经济和生态价值。早在20世纪50年代,他就曾建造复杂模型来测试和改善拉伸形状。在他的整个职业生涯中,奥托始终坚持建造物理模型来确定某种形式的最佳形状并检测其行为。在他工作室的工程师率先使用计算机对弗雷·奥托的项目进行结构分析,但这些计算的基础数据均来自用于形态研究的物理模型。
 
1958年,奥托创办了第一个专注于轻质结构的研究所——轻质建筑开发研究所(这是一家小型的私人机构,此后他又成立了几家类似机构),并在柏林的Zehlendorf区开设了一家新的工作室。在接下来的五年里,他定期赴美国讲学,并在华盛顿大学圣路易斯分校、耶鲁大学、加州大学伯克利分校、麻省理工学院和哈佛大学做访问学者。
 
1961年成立于柏林技术大学的生物学与建筑研究小组标志着他与建筑师、工程师和生物学家协作的开始。他们运用来自帐篷、网壳以及其他轻型结构的知识来更好地理解生物结构和形式的设计。
 
1962年,奥托发表了他重要巨著——《张力结构:缆线、网格和薄膜结构建造的设计、结构与计算》的第一卷(第二卷于1966年出版)。1964年,他成为新成立的斯图加特大学轻型结构研究所(IL)的主任。IL受德国政府委托,对1967年加拿大蒙特利尔世博会德国馆的规划事宜进行研究。德国领导人选择了奥托的作品来展示本国二战后在工业和工程方面的专长和创新技术。由此产生的1967年世博会德国馆由罗尔夫·古特布罗德和弗里茨·莱昂哈特合作创建,让身为建筑师和设计工程师的弗雷·奥托获得了走向国际的 机遇。这是大规模被动式太阳能建筑的早期典范之一。
 
次年,即1968年,奥托被提名为美国建筑师学会荣誉院士,IL也得到慕尼黑奥运会组委会委托,为慕尼黑奥林匹克公园主体育场的投射式屋顶开发建设测量模型。这个专为当年奥运会设立的项目于1972年5月由君特·贝尼施、弗雷·奥托和弗里茨·莱茵哈特合作完成,该项目由一块覆盖奥林匹克体育场看台的巨大薄膜、拉伸结构竞技场、奥林匹克游泳池织物屋顶以及连接建筑物并为观众遮阳挡雨的双曲线薄膜天篷所组成。
 
1969年,奥托在斯图加特附近成立了Atelier (Frei Otto) Warmbronn建筑工作室。在这里,奥托和他的团队研究如何用很少的材料进行高效施工的方法。巧合的是,奥托的建筑形式经常运用与自然构造类似的解决方案,因而在外形上与鸟类头骨和蜘蛛网等相似。
 
奥托在他的职业生涯中著述颇丰。他的著作《生物学和建筑学》于1972年发表,第二卷于次年出版。在后来的研究中,奥托撰写了关于竹材、甲壳和肥皂泡的结构和建筑性能的书籍。1994年,他出版了关于早期建筑结构发明的专著《古建筑》。
 
从1964年到1991年,奥托在斯图加特大学担任全职教授,并于1991年被任命为名誉教授。
 
多年来,奥托的研究团队包括了哲学家、历史学家、自然学家和环保人士。他是世界知名的建筑学和工程学创新者,现代张力结构织物屋顶的开拓者,并在设计中采用网壳、竹材和木格等其他材料和建筑系统。他在利用空气作为结构材料、气动理论和可变屋顶开发等方面取得了重要进展。奥托将研究成果无私分享给其他建筑师。他总是鼓励建筑领域的合作。
 
仅举两个例子:1975年至1980年,奥托曾与罗尔夫·古特布罗德及泰德·海坡尔德合作,为沙特阿拉伯吉达市的阿卜杜勒阿齐兹国王大学建立一个帐篷状的健身房,奥托又与建筑师坂茂(2014年普利兹克建筑奖得主)合作设计了2000年汉诺威世博会日本馆。
 
弗雷·奥托于1971年在纽约现代艺术博物馆(MoMA)举办的平生第一次重大专题展览获得了广泛认可。(1975年至1977年间,该展览的重新设计曾在北美、欧洲、亚洲和澳大利亚的多个场馆展出)。1982年,斯图加特的国际关系学院组织了“自然结构”展览,其中精选了他的作品,此后,该展览又在大约80个国家的歌德学院巡回展出。
 
1984年,他成为德国研究基金会230特别研究项目——“自然结构:建筑与自然界中的轻型结构”的创始成员之一,并得到德国四所重点大学的参与。作为德国最大的跨学科研究项目,其中包含了建筑师、工程师、生物学家、行为科学家、古生物学家、形态学家、物理学家、混沌理论学家、医生、历史学家和哲学家。该项目于1995年完成。
 
弗雷·奥托屡获殊荣,曾于1974年被授予弗吉尼亚大学托马斯·杰斐逊奖及建筑学奖章;1982年被巴黎建筑学院授予研究及技术奖; 1982年被德国建筑师协会授予特等奖和金奖;1980年因沙特阿拉伯麦加会议中心(与罗尔夫·古特布罗德合作)设计而被授予阿卡汗建筑奖;1998年因沙特阿拉伯首都利雅得的外交俱乐部(与奥玛拉尼亚和海坡尔德合作)设计而再次荣获阿卡汗建筑奖。1982年,他被英国伦敦的皇家建筑师协会(RIBA)任命为荣誉院士;1986年被伦敦结构工程师学会任命为名誉院士;1996年,他获得柏林德国建筑师和工程师协会授予的特等奖。2005年,他被授予英国皇家建筑师协会(RIBA)皇家金奖。2006年,日本艺术协会授予他高松宫殿下纪念世界文化奖。
 
Frei Otto was born in Siegmar, Germany, on May 31, 1925, and grew up in Berlin. “Frei” in German means “free”; his mother thought of the name after attending a lecture on freedom. Otto’s father and grandfather were both sculptors, and as a young student, he worked as an apprentice in stonemasonry during school holidays. For a hobby he flew and designed glider planes — this activity piqued his interest in how thin membranes stretched over light frames could respond to aerodynamic and structural forces.
 
When he had his university-entrance diploma in 1943, he signed up at once to study architecture, but he was not allowed to. Instead, he was drafted into the labor force. In September 1943, Otto was called for military service and he trained as a pilot. The pilot training was stopped at the end of 1944 and Otto became a foot soldier. In April 1945, he was captured near Nürnberg and became a prisoner of war. He stayed for two years in a prisoner of war camp near Chartres in France. There he worked as a camp architect; and he learned to build many types of structures with as little material as possible.
 
After the war, in 1948, Frei Otto returned to study architecture at the Technical University of Berlin. His architecture would always be a reaction to the heavy, columned buildings constructed for a supposed eternity under the Third Reich in Germany. Otto’s work, in contrast, was lightweight, open to nature, democratic, low-cost, and sometimes even temporary.

In 1950, with scholarship funds, he embarked on a study trip through the United States, where he visited the work of Frank Lloyd Wright, Erich Mendelsohn, Eero Saarinen, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe,Richard Neutra, Charles and Ray Eames, among others. During this time he also studied sociology and urban development at the University of Virginia.
 
In 1952, Frei Otto became a freelance architect and founded his own architectural office in Berlin. He earned a doctorate of civil engineering at the Technical University of Berlin in 1954. His dissertation Das Hangende Dach, Gestalt und Struktur (“The Suspended Roof, Form and Structure”) was published in German, Polish, Spanish and Russian. Also in 1954 he began work with “the tentmaker” Peter Stromeyer at L. Stromeyer & Co. In 1955, he designed and built (with Peter Stromeyer) three lightweight minimal temporary structures made of cotton fabric for the Bundesgartenschau (Federal Garden Exhibition) in Kassel, Germany. These were his first works to gain national recognition, in part for how they harmonized with nature.
 
Frei Otto pioneered the use of modern, lightweight, tent-like structures for many uses. He was attracted to them partly for their economical and ecological values. As early as the 1950s, he built complex models to test and perfect tensile shapes. Throughout his career, Otto always built physical models to determine the optimum shape of a form and to test its behavior. Engineers in his studio were early adopters of computers for structural analysis of Frei Otto’s projects, but the basic input data for these calculations came from the physical form-finding models.
 
In 1958, Otto founded the first of several institutions he would establish that were dedicated to lightweight structures — the Institute for Development of Lightweight Construction, a small private institute — and opened a new studio in the Zehlendorf district of Berlin. Over the next five years he taught periodically in the United States, taking on visiting professorships at Washington University, St. Louis; Yale University; University of California at Berkeley; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Harvard University.
 
The establishment of the Biology and Building research group at the Technical University of Berlin in 1961 marked the beginning of his cooperative work between architects, engineers, and biologists. They applied their knowledge of tents, grid shells, and other lightweight structures to better understand the designs of biological structures and forms.
 
In 1962, Otto published the first volume of his major opus Tensile Structures: Design, Structure and Calculation of Buildings of Cables, Nets and Membranes (the second volume was published in 1966.)In 1964, he became director of the newly founded Institute for Lightweight Structures (Institut für Leichte Flächentragwerke or IL) at the University of Stuttgart. IL was commissioned by the German government to conduct research in connection with the planning of the German pavilion for the 1967 International and Universal Exposition in Montreal, Canada, better known as Expo 67. The leaders of Germany chose Otto’s architecture to demonstrate the nation’s post-World War II industrial and engineering expertise and innovative technologies. The resulting German pavilion at Expo 67, created in collaboration with Rolf Gutbrod and Fritz Leonhardt, gave Frei Otto his international breakthrough as an  architect and a design engineer. It\'s an early example of a large scale, passive solar building.
 
The following year, in 1968, Otto was named an Honorary Fellow of the American Institute of Architects, and IL was commissioned by Olympia Baugesellschaft in Munich to develop construction measurement models for the projected roof of the main sports stadium in the Munich Olympic Park. The project, realized in May 1972, by Günter Behnisch, Frei Otto, and Fritz Leonhardt, for that year’s Olympics, comprised a large membrane to cover the stands of the Olympic stadium, a tensile structure arena, a fabric roof over the Olympic swimming pool, and hyperbolic membrane canopies to connect the buildings and protect visitors from rain and sun.  
 
In 1969, Otto established the Atelier (Frei Otto) Warmbronn architectural studio near Stuttgart. There Otto and his teams researched construction methods that could be highly effective with very little material. It happened that the forms of Otto’s buildings often found similar solutions to those in nature and thus resembled natural forms such as bird skulls and spider webs.
 
Otto wrote extensively throughout his career. His book Biology and Building was published in 1972 with a second volume the next year. Later research led Otto to write about the structural and building properties of bamboo, crustaceans, and soap bubbles. In 1994, he published Ancient Architects on structural inventions from the earliest days of building.
From 1964 to 1991, Otto was a full professor at the University of Stuttgart, and in 1991, he was named emeritus professor.
 
Over the years, Otto’s research teams would include philosophers, historians, naturalists and environmentalists. He is a world-renowned innovator in architecture and engineering who pioneered modern fabric roofs over tensile structures and also worked with other materials and building systems such as grid shells, bamboo, and wooden lattices. He made important advances in the use of air as a structural material and to pneumatic theory, and the development of convertible roofs. Otto made the results of the research available to other architects. He always favored collaboration in architecture.
 
To cite just two examples: from 1975 to 1980 Otto worked with Rolf Gutbrod and Ted Happold to build a tent-like gymnasium for the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and Otto co-designed the Japanese pavilion at the 2000 Hanover Expo with architect Shigeru Ban (who received the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2014).
 
Frei Otto was recognized with his first major monographic exhibition in 1971 at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York. (A redesign of the exhibition later traveled in 1975 and 1977 to venues in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia). The exhibition “Natural Constructions,” which featured his work, was organized by the Institute for International Relations in Stuttgart in 1982 and shown in Goethe Institutes in approximately 80 countries.
 
In 1984, he became a founding member of the Special Research Project 230 “Natural constructions — lightweight construction in architecture and nature” of the German Research Foundation, which included the participation of four major universities in Germany. As the largest interdisciplinary German research project, it involved architects, engineers, biologists, behavioral scientists, paleontologists, morphologists, physicists, chaos theorists, physicians, historians, and philosophers. This project was completed in 1995.
 
Among numerous accolades, Frei Otto was awarded the Thomas Jefferson Prize and Medal in Architecture by the University of Virginia in 1974; the Medaille de la recherché et de la technique by the Academie d’Architecture, Paris, in 1982; the Grand Prize and gold medal by the Association of German Architects, also in 1982. He received the 1980 Aga Khan Award for Architecture (together with Rolf Gutbrod) for the conference centre in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, and the 1998 Aga Khan Award for Architecture (together with Omrania and Happold) for the Diplomatic Club in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He was named Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects, London, in 1982 and Honorary Fellow of the Institution of Structural Engineers, London, in 1986. In 1996, he received the Grand Prize of the German Association of Architects and Engineers, Berlin. In 2005, he was awarded the Royal Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA).
弗雷·奥托

弗雷·奥托

Frei Otto

出生于 1925-05-31 ,逝世于 2015-03-09

分类:人物 - 建筑大师

  弗雷·奥托1925年5月31日生于德国西格玛尔,2015年3月9日去世,2015年3月10日(均为美国时间)普利兹克组委会官方宣布其获得2015年普利兹克建筑奖。在他生前,组委会已向奥托当面传达了其获奖的讯息。他是第四十位普利兹克奖得主,也是获得该奖项...   查看全部

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