美国 Juliaetta 峡谷度假别墅(Canyon House )- Paul Hirzel

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项目概况:
建筑设计:Paul Hirzel
地点:美国(Juliaetta, United States)
结构设计:Harold Sorenson, Jeff Filler
建筑面积:204平方米(2196.0 ft2)
完工时间:2003
照片版权:Art Grice 
 
项目简介:
这栋峡谷别墅的主人是华盛顿州立大学兽医生理学教授肯·坎贝尔 (Ken Campbell) 和他作为律师的妻子吉恩·坎贝尔 (Jean Campbell) 一家的,他们希望有一个能够适应一年四季气候条件的惬意别墅,用他们的话说,这是一个“在人、鱼和河流三位一体的环境中能够陶冶情操的好地方”。一个可以写作、睡觉、聊天、吃饭、阅读、钓鱼、清洁、园艺和散步的地方…… 这里离他们在华盛顿工作的地方普尔曼有50英里。同时,他们也希望他们的孙子孙女们有机会到荒野上来看一看。
场地位于:清水河峡谷以南的一块40英亩的场地上 ——  爱达荷州刘易斯顿上游约16公里处。
 
目的:该度假居所由两个建筑组成:其中一个是“简易房”,沿着一条季节性河流建在峡谷中,另一栋建筑是“工作室”,位于手指岭,这里有一条由丛生禾草和爱达荷州羊茅构成的斜坡。而在清水河上游约90米处是一片黄松林。该项目在场地上以一种蜿蜒徘徊的方式进行布局,创建出了一个三位一体的结构模式.... 其中第三个点是一块造型完美的玄武岩,成为了一个能够俯瞰峡谷的观景点。 虽然那里看起来很适合建房子,但我们没有那么做,让那里继续作为一个“户外景观”。“工作室”是观赏鱼的最佳位置。 用主人的话说,“在这里可以看到沿河的南岸200码远的鱼群里的鳟鱼”。
 
“工作室”的造型是一个简单的矩形体嵌入到一个固定的木框架中。这个木框架和矩形体量建在了山脊的斜坡上;而一座桥延伸过去的路径可以通往“简易屋”。 木框架的西侧是一扇可拆卸的滑动带孔窗板——既遮阳又防风。在东侧框架上面是个甲板平台,上面有一个带淋浴的门廊。那些可调节操作的窗户安装在“工作室”的四周,这样即使在夏季气温达到38摄氏度时还能保持良好的通风。由于工作室是建在斜坡上朝向河流,因此视野很开阔…… 从某种意义上说,该建筑给人一种从山脊上“起飞”的错觉。 该“工作室”的轮廓线与这块30%的坡度相比,反映出了这个坚固的屋顶斜坡与垂直和水平的直角框架之间的关系。
 
“工作室”建筑是暴露/透明的 (这里的风暴经常以每小时70英里的速度在峡谷中肆虐),而“简易屋”是一个寻求庇护的地方。它在离工作室大约270米远的峡谷里,它的东立面和西立面都设有小窗户,通过窗户可以看到微环境的景观——岩石瀑布、霍桑灌木丛等。 南立面采用的是玻璃幕墙,通往山坡上的一个有围墙的露台,另外还有一条通往峡谷的台阶。 北面的墙壁上有一个倾斜的“地-天窗”,可以看到飞翔的鸟和河流。

Text description provided by the architects. The Canyon House. The owners (Ken Campbell, a professor of veterinary Physiology at Washington State University and his spouse Jean Campbell, an attorney) wanted a year-round retreat "to cultivate the spiritual aspects in the trinity of human, fish, and river" (their words). ?A place to write, sleep, talk, eat, read, fish, cleanse, garden and wander……. away from their work in Pullman, Washington – 50 miles from the site. Also, they wanted a wilderness place for their grandchildren to visit.

Site: ?40 acres on the southern side of the Clearwater River canyon - 10 miles upstream from Lewiston, Idaho.
 
Intentions: ?The retreat program was divided into two buildings: "the bunkhouse" is settled into a ravine along a seasonal stream and "the studio house" is perched on a finger ridge where a slope of bunch grass and Idaho fescue meet a Ponderosa Pine forest about 300 feet above the Clearwater River. ?The program was separated to encourage wanderings on the site and to create a triad of destinations.... the third destination is a perfectly shaped basalt knoll that provides a commanding observation point of the canyon. We resisted siting the house there, as it seemed appropriate to let it remain an "outside place". ?The location of the studio house was determined by where you would have the best fish sighting. To use the owner\'s words, “to mark the holding spot of steelhead for 200 yards in the fishy looking run along the river\'s south bank”.

The form of the studio house is a simple rectangular box inserted into a moment resisting wooden frame. The frame and box follow the ridge slope and a bridge extension provides access to path that leads to the bunkhouse. The west side of the frame is a brise-soleil that provides access for window washing and support for removable perforated sliding panels- for shading and wind protection. ?On the east side, the frame supports decks and a screened porch with an outside shower. Strategically placed operable windows on all four sides of the studio house allow updraft ventilation as summer temperatures in the canyon often reach over 100 degrees. Transparency increases (amount of glass) as the building steps down the slope toward the river... in a sense, giving the illusion that it is "taking off" from the ridge. The "lines" of the studio house contrasts the 30% slope of the site that is mirrored by the strong roof incline with the orthogonal frame of strong verticals and horizontals (a distant derivative of some of the mining structures in the canyon).

Where the studio house is about exposure/transparency (windstorms often blast the canyon with 70mph gusts), the bunkhouse is a place to seek refuge. ?Tucked into the folds of a ravine about 300 yards away from the studio house, its east and west facades have small windows that frame views of microenvironments - a rock fall, a Hawthorne thicket, etc..... The south wall is entirely glazed and opens to a walled terrace built into the hillside with a stair that leads you up the ravine and out of the canyon. The north wall has an inclined “earth- sky window” for watching the soaring bird life and river below.
 





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