上海当代艺术馆(Shanghai MOCA) - 刘宇扬(Atelier Liu Yuyang Architects)

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项目概况:
建筑设计:刘宇扬建筑事务所(Atelier Liu Yuyang Architects)
位置:上海市南京西路231号人民公园内(People's Park, 231 Nanjing West Road, People\'s Square, Huangpu, China)
设计团队:刘宇扬, 余振明,周天郎,蔡晖
基地面积:1800 平方米
建筑面积: 3900平方米
时间:2009
照片版权:Jeremy San,刘宇扬等

项目简介:
这是一个如何把城市建筑的“灰姑娘”转变为当代艺术“公主”的故事。在这个故事里, 建筑设计者的角色更像是一名建筑"化妆师"。原本的建筑体由于政策考量不好拆。但是,每个参与的人都希望看到一座被重新赋予生命力的新建筑。

“上海当代艺术馆”的设计并不想要一个“宣言式”的建筑,而更多的追求是其建筑语汇的“双重性”(duality)。 它是一座介于现有和新造的建筑。首先,在原入口和三楼加建的部分,新的设计加入了数个比较突出的几何玻璃体,来“融解”旧玻璃房原有的外形。在原水泥房的部分,外墙以斜著排列的“蒙古黑”花岗岩配合了同样斜列的不锈钢窗框,体现出另一种含蓄却与众不同的外观。 这结果既不是仅仅的装修,也不完全是单纯的加建,而是在保留原结构体的条件下做彻底的改头换面。

新“艺术馆”的功能必须兼顾艺术展览空间─所谓的白盒子─的要求,又欲求体现其建筑本质上的意义─无论是建构、空间、结构、材料等方面。其中,斜坡桥的设计可以算是一个例子。藉由电脑结构模型的辅助,斜坡桥的设计用最少量的钢材(不到三吨)和最大的跨距(近三十米)连接了两个主展览层。弧状的钢结构体从不同切面穿过有如树林般的混凝土柱,提供了参观者从不同定点与高度观看大型艺术装置的可能性。

新“艺术馆”是一座介于园林和都市的建筑。由于它特殊的地理位置,人们先穿越了这绿意盎然的人民公园,再抵达这座更近乎于当代城市脉搏的机构。从展馆的主玻璃体内和三楼的大阳台向外望,参观者得到了园林与都市的双重印象。在此,原“花卉馆“的功能得到了再生。人们不再来看馆里的花,而是从这里向外看到所有公园里的花草。

新“艺术馆”是一座介于隐喻与现实的建筑。说它是一颗黑钻石也好、一架隐形轰炸机也好、或者是解构主义遇上了简约主义也好。然而,更有意思的可能是这栋建筑所呈现的现实景象。事实上人们将可看到的是个多重现实景象:花枝招展的艺术品、火热兴建中的城市、偷得浮生闲的花园。 当这栋建筑已成为这个城市的一部分的时候,艺术如何走入生活,就不仅限于狭义的硬体空间或"展览"空间。而更多的是这个机构所传达给这个城市的讯息、所提供的活动、所创造的文化。 这栋建筑所能提供的,除了遮风避雨外, 就是这些事件的可能性。

From the architect. The story of the Shanghai Moca is about how the architectural “Cinderella”—an abandoned flower pavilion—was transformed into a “Princess” of contemporary art. The role of the architect in this case was more akin to that of a “make-up artist”.

The design of the Shanghai MOCA was so not much about establishing a new manifesto, but instead to exploit the notion of duality, mediating between an existing form and new intentions. The original structure was an un-utilized but structurally in-tack glass and concrete building. A series of geometric glass volumes were introduced to replace the main entrance and to extend part of the third floor, dissolving the predictable form of the original glass pavilion. The diagonally-laid “Mongolian Black” stone cladding over the existing concrete building gives a much subdued yet differentiated expression, highlighted by the deep-recessed stainless steel window frames that are intentionally mis-aligned. The resulting work could neither be defined as a new building, nor a mere addition.

The new program mediates between the requirements for art exhibition—the need for a generic white box, and the desire for an appropriate architectural expression—one which celebrates the intrinsic quality of architecture, be it tectonic, spatial, structural, or material. The design of the ramp is one such example. Thanks to an elegantly resolved structural model, the ramp connects the two principal exhibition floors at a maximum span with a minimum usage of steel (just under 3 tons), producing a sweeping curvature that “dances” through the existing reinforced concrete columns in different tangential relationships, and allows for a circumscribed and ascending viewing of large-scale installations placed in the center of the main exhibition space.

The new museum mediates between landscape and city. Because of its unique location within the People’s Park, visitors are required to meander through the ‘garden of the proletariats’ before arriving at the institution that is paradoxically more akin to the consumerist nature of the city outside. The largely unobstructed glazing of the glass pavilion and the roof deck of the third floor bring together a view of the park with the images of the city. Here the former function of the building as a flower pavilion is somewhat re-incarnated; instead of housing the flowers, the new building affords the visitors a view of the Park’s lush vegetation from its galleries, café, and sun deck.

The building mediates between metaphor and reality. A gem, a stealth bomber, a collage of deconstruction meets minimalism; these are some of the possible metaphoric descriptions of the project. However, it is far more intriguing to adopt the views of a reality that is emerging through the building itself. There is in fact a multiple reality, with apertures to the art exhibited, the city being constructed, and the garden to be sought refuge in. When the building finally becomes a part of the city, how the art affects one’s life is no longer limited to the physical “exhibition” space. Rather, it’s how the museum as an institution lays the ground for a new culture of the city. What the building can provide, besides a shelter for rain and sun, is the possibility of the events and the creation of a genuine culture.





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