匈牙利布达佩斯历史市政厅改造更新(Reconstruction of Historic Town Hall of Buda )- Hetedik Muterem

编辑导读:13世纪以来历经几个世纪的历史建筑的翻新与改造,既要保留历史又要能满足今天的需求,一个玻璃屋顶的当代元素如同浮动在历史的结构当中,阁楼层清晰可见的历史…(经典值评价:7.2)
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项目概况:
建筑设计:Hetedik Muterem
地点:匈牙利,布达佩斯(Budapest, Hungary)
主持建筑师:Levente Szabó DLA
完工时间:2018
照片版权:Balázs Danyi, Gyorgy Klosz
 
项目简介:
布达的旧市政厅是匈牙利最重要的纪念性建筑之一。它之所以具有重要意义,是因为匈牙利首都的地方政府从1688年(长达150年的土耳其统治的结束)到19世纪末一直在这里运作,而且它的独特之处在于它的建设层次在历史时间和空间上都是层次分明的。这个建筑群由几座13-14世纪的民用建筑于18世纪的几个时期逐步结合为一个整体组成,是巴洛克风格的代表性建筑。在中世纪,可能有五栋小房子处于今天的建筑之上,其中的瓦砾还保留在地下室和一层的墙壁上。
 
在1688年,奥斯曼人占领150年之后,布达城几乎立即指定了这一片地块,用于重建以前的中世纪房屋。这座建筑的建造历史由几个时期组成。在1688年至1891年这两个最重要的阶段中的第一个阶段,这些建筑作品由皇帝的建筑师Venerio Ceresola指导下建成,他使这座中世纪建筑的遗骸得以再次使用。在1770-1771年间,Matthaus Nepauer,布达的一位著名巴洛克建筑商进行了至今仍占主导地位的最具决定性意义的建设:统一的巴洛克立面,整合了一楼的中世纪遗迹,在当时与位于角落的阳台一起完工。整个建筑变成了两层楼,雄伟的巴洛克主楼梯也被建造起来,创造了一个双层的内部空间结构,以及地面和一楼的外部走廊。
 
在第二次世界大战期间,这座建筑遭受了巨大的破坏:建筑角落的Uri utca和位于中部的Szentharomsag utca侧厅几乎倒塌到一楼上方的拱顶,超过一半的屋顶结构被摧毁,至今仍能看到痕迹。修复在1949年至1952年之间,其功能已从历史博物馆多次转变为高级研究所。2014年到2018年间,HetedikMTEREM有限公司的设计团队、建筑师和专家们规划了该纪念性建筑的重建、现代化改造和扩建工作。这项工作的科学背景得到考古和艺术史研究的支持,基于至少与现场考古发掘或墙壁测试一样多的档案研究。
 
这座具有独特历史价值的建筑的翻新具有双重目的:重建基于巴洛克风格的建筑,并保留13世纪以来重要的中世纪部分及其几个世纪不同时期的建造和扩展,保留它们令人兴奋的材料、结构和空间特征,同时又能满足今天的需求。与此同时,在底层和地下室(餐厅、书店、钱币博物馆等)执行公共职能,但一楼和阁楼提供了教育和研究室的空间。在楼上,著名的巴洛克式的建筑纵列服务于行政、教育和建筑示范功能,阁楼则成为研究人员的工作场所。
 
覆盖建筑内部的庭院可以取代大厅一样的空间,适合于举办各种活动,也分配了一层大量的空间。屋顶的设计理念主要是为了保持庭院般的感觉,并尽可能地将它们作为玻璃屋顶的同质特征。将院子纳入内部,显然是在空间上采取与西方庭院一样形式的积极结果。在这里,拱形开口的玻璃被移除,当庭院周围的走廊被用作打开的“修道院”时,它可以恢复原来的状态。现在,这些檐板支撑着支持玻璃结构的钢梁,而在这些梁的平面上,可控制的白色亚麻布层确保了遮荫和建筑所需的一致性。同时定制的钢梁通道隐藏了空间的照明装置,这在白天几乎是看不见的。这是该建筑一个重要的方向,在檐口的新的结构应结合所有的功能需求,并作为一个统一和中立的当代元素在历史结构上“浮动”。
 
建筑300年历史的巴洛克式屋顶在第二次世界大战中被严重破坏。由于其中一半以上是在第二次世界大战期间被炸毁的,因此有必要在原先三个屋顶结构部件之间创造新的形式。奇怪的是,战争的严重破坏并没有削弱反而是加强了数百年来发展起来的建筑物的拼贴性质。当然,有300年历史的落叶松屋顶结构被破坏的部分无法被补充,因此它们被另一层――当代层取代。因此,在阁楼上行走时,天花板高度较大的开放式巴洛克空间和裸露的木工空间与天花板高度较低的同质新空间相互交替。应用于屋面的不同类的解决方案接近于建筑物任意点都可见的不均质性,这是由于不同建筑周期的复杂空间性质所造成的。而第二次世界大战造成的损害已成为该建筑物历史上不可或缺的、可见的和可读的一部分。

Architects Team:Balázs Biri, Katalin Alkér, András Bartha, Rita Terbe DLA, Zsolt Tolnai
Associate Architects:Fruzsina Barta, Kata Bartis, Rita Dolmány, Dénes Halmai, András Kunczi, Rozália Marton DLA, Eszter Mihály, András Páll, Zita Pelle, ákos Polgárdi, Orsolya Simon, Nóra Szigeti, Norbert Villányi
Inspector of Monuments:Dr. Judit Janotti
Research & Archeology:Ferenc Bor, Juan Cabello, Klára Mentényi, Anna Simon, Edit Szentesi, Dr. András Végh
Structural Engineering:József Schreiber (S-4 Mérn?kiroda Ltd.)
Building Technology:Ildikó Cser, Zoltán Vajda (Cser&Cser Mérn?ki Iroda LP)
Electric Engineering:Zoltán Ivanics, Attila Nagy, Gábor ónodi (Provill Ltd.)
Lighting:Ferenc Haász
Building Structures:Gábor Schreiber, Sándor Horváth, Dávid Lengyel (S-4 Mérn?kiroda Ltd.)
Accessibility:Anna Kormányos
Acoustics:Gusztáv Józsa
Fire Protection:Dr. Lajos Takács
General Contractor:Magyar építo? Inc.

 
Text description provided by the architects. The old Town Hall of Buda is one of Hungary\'s most important monuments. It is significant because the magistracy of the Hungarian capital operated here from 1688 (the end of 150 years of Turkish rule) until the late 19th century, and it is also unique because of the layering of its construction history both in time and space. The conglomerate of constructions consisting of several civilian buildings from the 13-14th century was formed during the 18th century in several periods to one unified, representative building reflecting Baroque architecture. In the middle ages, there were probably five smaller houses in place of today’s building, the fragments of which are preserved in the cellars and ground floor walls.
 
 
 
In 1688, almost immediately after the 150 years of the Ottoman occupation, the Town of Buda designated this cluster of plots for the reconstruction of the former medieval houses. The construction history of the house consists of several periods. In the first of the two most important phases, from 1688 to 1891, the works were led by the emperor’s architect, Venerio Ceresola, who made the remains of the medieval building usable again. In 1770-71, Mattha?us Nepauer, a significant Baroque builder of Buda carried out the most determinant construction that still dominates today: the uniform Baroque fa?ade – integrating the medieval remains of the ground floor too – was finished at that time together with the corner balconies. The whole building became two-story, the imposing Baroque main staircase was also built, creating a double-court inner space structure, together with the exterior corridors on the ground and the first floor.
 
 
During World War II, the building suffered massive damage: the corner on U?ri utca and the middle part of the Szentha?romsa?g utca wing collapsed almost to the vaults above the ground floor, and more than half of the roof structure was destroyed, the traces of which are still visible today. The restoration took place between 1949 and 1952, and the functions were changed several times, from a historical museum to an institute of advanced study. From 2014 to 2018, the design team of the Hetedik M?terem Ltd., architects and specialists planned the monument reconstruction, modernization, and extension of the building. The scientific background of the work was supported by archaeological and art historical research, based on at least as much archival research as on-site archaeological excavations or wall tests.
 
 
The renewal of the building with unique historical value had a dual purpose: the reconstruction of the basically Baroque building with significant medieval parts from the 13th century and its several construction and extension periods during the centuries, by preserving their exciting material, structural and spatial imprints, and at the same time a revitalization that meets today’s demands. While mainly public functions will be implemented on the ground floor and in the basement (restaurant, bookstore, coin museum, etc.), the first floor and the attic provide space for educational and research rooms. Upstairs, the prestigious Baroque enfilade serves administrative, educational and representative functions, and the attic floor becomes the researchers’ workplace.
 
 
Covering the courtyards of the building can replace the hall-like space, which would be suitable for events and could play a ground floor-distribution role too. The main thesis of the roofing concept was to keep the courtyard-like feeling and to create them as a homogeneous character for the glass roof as possible. Integrating the courts into the interior had the clearly positive outcome of spatially completing the western court. Here the glazing of the arched openings could be removed, allowing for the return to the original state when the corridors around the court were used as an open ?cloister.“ Now the cornices support the steel beams bearing the glass structure, and, in the plane of these beams, controllable white linen lamellas ensure both shading and the required homogeneity, while the channel of the custom-made steel beams conceals the space’s lighting so that is almost invisible during the day. It was an important aspect that the new structure above the cornices should integrate all functional needs, and ?float“ over the historic structures as a unified and neutral contemporary element.
 
 
The building’s 300 years old Baroque roof was greatly damaged in World War II. Since more than half of it was bombed during World War II, it was necessary to create something new between the three original roof structure parts. In a strange way, the serious destruction of the war did not weaken but strengthened the collage-like nature of the building that developed over hundreds of years. Of course, the destroyed parts of the 300-year-old larch roof structure elements could not be complemented, so they were replaced with another – now contemporary – layer instead. Therefore, when walking in the attic, open Baroque spaces of larger ceiling height and exposed carpentry are alternating with homogeneous new spaces of lower ceiling height. The inhomogeneous solution applied in the roof space is close to the inhomogeneity that can be seen at any point of the building, resulting from the complex spatial nature of the different building periods. World War II damages became an integral, visible and readable part of the building’s history.





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