澳大利亚纽波特伊斯兰中心(Australian Islamic Centre )- Glenn Murcutt + Elevli Plus

编辑导读:建筑师从清真寺的功能和符号学的传统出发,用现代建筑的语言很好地诠释了宗教……(经典值评价:7.4)
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项目概况:
建筑设计:Elevli Plus, Glenn Murcutt
地点:澳大利亚,纽波特(23 Blenheim Rd, Newport VIC 3015, Australia)
主持建筑师:Glenn Murcutt, Hakan Elevli
建筑面积:10000.0 m2
完工时间:2019
照片版权:Anthony Browell

项目简介:
位于墨尔本纽波特的澳大利亚伊斯兰中心也许是澳大利亚第一个真正意义上的现代清真寺,它是澳大利亚在建筑和社会层面上对伊斯兰教新感知的体现。澳大利亚拥有相当可观并逐渐增长的穆斯林人口,这个项目在带着尊重重新审视了当代澳大利亚的伊斯兰设计惯例后,先锋性地诠释了一个走入未来的清真寺。

在设计过程中,普利兹克建筑奖得主格伦·马库特在沿用现代主义原则的同时回应着项目的社会和传统背景。建筑自2006年动工,2018年完成,这是马库特建筑水平的体现,毕竟他十分擅长斡旋于各种视角中。清真寺的外墙通常将外人隔绝,而这个项目最终设计的透明度和开放度使清真寺的内部也展现给外人,这也是建筑内部沟通交流的一种形式。

设计旨在创造一座现代而有澳大利亚特点的建筑,使其能够积极诠释清真寺作为澳大利亚郊区迎接式建筑的职能。一个建筑委员会在为项目考察合适人选时,发现了作为阿卡汗亲王殿下建筑奖评委会主席的悉尼建筑师马库特,该奖项是伊斯兰建筑设计的国际大奖。

当时马库特的建筑生涯并没有涵盖伊斯兰建筑,而且他与澳大利亚伊斯兰群体的个人交集也十分有限。被邀请前去探讨新清真寺设计时,他的回应令人惊讶:“我当然为这个可能性而激动,但是在一个新领域设计一个清真寺,对于我这样的个人建筑师,是额外困难的。顶着这种困难去设计一个有价值的建筑项目,激动很可能就会被紧张取代。我希望和有伊斯兰背景的建筑师平等合作。有人推荐了 HakanElevli,我们举行了会面然后他加入了这个项目。”

在最开始,马库特理解这个清真寺应当在蕴含伊斯兰设计传统的同时体现当地和全澳大利亚民众的精神,它要包容而尊重所有信仰的民众。他的设计从清真寺的功能和符号学传统出发,考虑到了最基础的元素,如在朝向(Qibla)墙内面向麦加的壁龛(mihrab)、一个巨大的多柱式中央祈祷厅、安静的水体、用以沐浴的设施、以及历来要求的分割的男女空间。

建筑如一系列相互联系的二层空间组构而成。一楼为教徒礼堂、图书馆、咖啡厅、商业厨房和一个体育馆,经过直通楼梯到达二楼,二楼为一些妇女专用的抬高的区域。马库特的设计还以值得注意的方式背离了一些历史悠久的设计原则,如否定了高穹屋顶的必要性,转而提供一种体现透明度而不再封闭的正立面,并重新构想了宣理塔的形式,将这一历史中作为召集祈祷者的塔转变为划出接待庭院界限的高墙。马库特对当他做出这些设计决策时如何统筹历史惯例和功能性要求给出了解释:

在设计过程中出现了很多问题,尤其是有关宣理塔和穹顶的。一些群体成员质疑了我们对于取掉作为信仰标志的宣理塔的想法。传统意义上它是一个号召祈祷者的地方,但在今天的澳大利亚,这并不大可能发生。有一些其他清真寺已经割舍了宣理塔,所以这并不是新想法。一楼一个巨大朝东的庭院和隐蔽的走廊,包括分性别的入口点,构成了清真寺的入口区域。延伸的走廊提供一个绝佳的聚集区域,让人联想起传统的清真寺院落(Sahn)并为大型集合如开斋节集会带来额外场地。庭院和走廊在南端被一个纤细的水塘环绕,其中一条边被延伸的宣理塔墙庇荫。走廊之外是直通双倍层高的主祈祷厅的玻璃门。有一条清晰的视线自清真寺外起穿过祈祷厅直到主壁龛、朝向墙和流水花园。

普遍认为的第一个清真寺是先知穆罕穆德的家。它是七世纪一个位于麦地那(今沙特阿拉伯)的阿拉伯风格房屋,带有一个大型庭院,被由柱子支撑的长间房屋环绕。马库特的澳大利亚伊斯兰中心设计排布了二十四根钢柱以自东向西、自北向南各分割出三个开间作为清真寺几何传统的体现。一个在西端的可反射的水体庭院和五十五个装在三米高屋顶上的灯笼自然地照亮了主祈祷厅。这些灯笼发出有伊斯兰符号性意义的颜色(黄,绿,蓝和红色),它们朝向罗盘的四个点,在建筑中画出上色的随着太阳运动不断变换图案的三角形日光光斑。

澳大利亚的第一个清真于1861年建成在 Marre,南澳大利亚。它是一个简单但重要的建筑,它标志着澳大利亚伊斯兰宗教仪式场地的落成。清真寺是澳大利亚多文化多宗派社会的建筑实体,伊斯兰中心在参考其漫长历史的前提下保持了它对其受众群体的重要性。它代表了教徒集会活动的成熟、活力和持久性,并与此同时在实体上和视觉上体现了伊斯兰建筑的新可能性。

Structural and Civil Engineers:Dome Consulting
Services Engineers:NJM Design Consulting
Landscape Architects:Tract Consultants
Client:Australian Islamic Center
Building Surveyor\'s:Code Control
Traffic Engineers:Cardno
Accoustic Engineers:Renzo Toning
Energy Consultants:GHD

Text by Ewan McEoin. The Hugh Williamson Senior Curator of Contemporary Design and Architecture, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. As perhaps the first truly contemporary Australian mosque, the Australian Islamic Centre in Newport, Melbourne, is an architectural and social marker of a new perception of Islam in Australia. By respectfully recalibrating historical Islamic design conventions for contemporary Australia – a country with a well-established and growing Muslim population – this project heralds a new interpretation of mosques as a future part of our suburbs.
 
 
 
In designing this building, Pritzker Architecture Prize-winning architect Glenn Murcutt has drawn on modernist principles while responding to the project’s community and traditional contexts. The building’s construction, from 2006 to 2018, is as much a story of Murcutt’s architectural capacity as it is of his adeptness at mediating a range of viewpoints. Through the transparency and openness of its formal design, this mosque offers a new look inside walls traditionally closed to outsiders, and thus acts as a form of communication in itself.
 
 
The brief was for a modern and Australian building that would contribute to a positive interpretation of the mosque as a welcome architectural feature of suburban Australia. A building committee conducted research into suitable architects for the project, identifying Sydney-based Murcutt through his role as a chair of the jury for His Highness The Aga Khan’s Awards for Architecture, an international awards for the design of Islamic buildings.
 
 
At the time, Murcutt’s architectural practice did not include the design of Islamic buildings, and he had limited personal experience of the Australian Islamic community. When invited by the committee to discuss designing the new mosque, his response was one of surprise: ?“Of course I was excited by the possibility, but working outside one’s city and experience of designing a mosque, for a sole practitioner, had its special difficulties. Knowing how difficult it is to achieve the level of architecture that makes a new project worthwhile, excitement can easily be overtaken by nervousness. I wanted to work with an architect from an Islamic background, in equal collaboration. Hakan Elevli was suggested, a meeting took place and he joined the project”.
 
 
From the outset, Murcutt understood that the mosque should simultaneously embrace Islamic design traditions and address the spirit of local and Australian communities; it was to be inclusive and respectful of people of all faiths. His design for the building draws from the functional and semiotic language of traditional mosque architecture, considering fundamentals such as the orientation towards Mecca of a?mihrab?(niche) within a?qibla?wall; a large hypostyle (columned) central prayer hall; bodies of still water; provision of facilities for ablutions completed prior to prayer; and separate spaces, as required culturally, for men and women.
 
 
The building is organised as a set of interconnecting spaces arranged across two levels. A congregational hall, library, cafe, commercial kitchen, and sporting hall occupy the ground level, and the first floor, accessed via dedicated arrival stairs, provides a set of elevated spaces for women. Murcutt’s design also deviates from time-honoured design principles in important ways: it negates the need for a high domed roof, instead offering a facade that favours transparency over enclosure, and reimagines the form of the minaret – the tower from which the call to prayer was traditionally announced – as an elevated wall demarcating an arrival courtyard. Murcutt comments on how he considered historical precedents and functional requirements when making these design decisions:
 
 
A number of questions arose during the design process, particularly those that related to the minaret and the dome. Some community members questioned our proposal to eliminate the minaret on the grounds it is a symbol of the faith. Traditionally it was the place for the calling of prayers but today, in Australia, this was not likely to happen. There are other mosques that eliminated the minaret, so the proposition was not new. A large east-facing ground-floor courtyard and undercover verandah form the mosque’s entrance zone, including different access points for men and women. The expansive verandah offers a generous gathering space reminiscent of traditional mosque sahn courtyards and provides additional space for large congregations, such as those that gather during Eid prayer. To the south, the courtyard and verandah are bordered by a slender water pond and shielded on one side by the expansive minaret wall. Beyond the verandah, glass doors open directly onto the double-height volume of the main prayer hall. A clear line of sight is maintained from outside the mosque right through the prayer hall to the main?mihrab,?qibla?wall, and water gardens
 
The home of the Prophet Muhammad, considered the first mosque, was a seventh-century Arabian-style house in Medina (now Saudi Arabia) with a large courtyard surrounded by long rooms supported by columns. Murcutt’s design for the Australian Islamic Centre arranges twenty-four steel columns to create three bays from east to west and three from north to south, reflecting traditional mosque geometry. A reflective water courtyard to the west and fifty-five three-metre high roof-mounted lanterns naturally illuminate the main prayer hall. Glazed in colours symbolic to Islam (yellow, green, blue and red), these lanterns face the four points of the compass, drawing triangles of coloured daylight into the building in an ever-changing pattern determined by the sun’s movement.

The first Australian mosque was built in Marree, South Australia, in 1861 – a simple yet important structure marking the arrival of the Islamic place of worship in Australia. Drawing upon the long history of mosques as part of the built fabric of Australia’s multicultural and multidenominational society, the Australian Islamic Centre has deep significance for its community. It symbolises the maturity, vibrancy and permanence of their congregation while also offering a physical and visual manifestation of a new dialect for Islamic architecture.





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